Two sewing material parts are joined by the toppling. The seam is between them in the finished state.

The term accessories comes from the French term accessoire . Accessories are decorative elements that round off the overall picture and thus complete it. They played an important role in all fashion eras and are in no way inferior in their importance to silhouette and colour. Few accessories serve the sole purpose of adornment, such as jewellery and pins. Shoes, headwear, scarves, belts and handbags in particular fulfil special functions and complete the outfit.

A man-made fibre that has a silky sheen, does not crease and is quick-drying. This fibre consists of a cellulose compound with acetic acid. The material is washable, quick-drying and wrinkle-resistant. Often used for summer clothing, but also for linings and sportswear.

Acrylic is the abbreviation for a plastic compound called polyacrylonitrile. This is a lightweight man-made fibre which is characteristically similar to wool fibre. Due to its high durability, heat retention and simultaneous light and weather resistance, it finds a wide range of applications. However, acrylic is considered sensitive to heat and must not be exposed to temperatures above 40 °C.

Synthetic imitation suede made from ultra-fine fibres. Alcantara is as grippy as fine suede, but the density is lower and it is much easier to care for than leather.

Whether multi-coloured or printed with only one colour: When the print extends over the entire surface of a fabric or garment, it is called an all-over print (from the English term all over, meaning "even", "without gaps"). All-over prints with small-scale patterns such as houndstooth or Vichy checks are particularly popular.

Alpaca is the very fine undercoat of the alpaca, a camel species related to the llama, which is bred in South America (Peru and Chile) and lives semi-wild at altitudes between 4000 and 5000 metres. For the climate prevailing there with extremely cold nights (-25 °C), they are equipped by nature with a thick, soft and very fine hair fleece. These animals are only shorn every two years. An animal sheds about 3-4 kilograms of wool per shearing. The wool of the alpaca is predominantly white, grey or brown and little curled. The silky shiny undercoat, which is 5 to 15 centimetres long, is finer and more valuable than the top coat. The main advantages of alpaca wool are its great elasticity, its good ability to balance heat and its light weight. Alpaca is used pure or mixed with other wool yarns (e.g. mohair) in knitting and weaving. The hair of the first shearing, also known as "baby alpaca", is particularly valuable; compared to the alpaca of the adult animal, it is considerably softer and has a silky sheen.

Fine quilting stitches designed as if sewn by hand. Mainly found on the lapels and flap pockets of suits, jackets and blazers.

Angora wool is the name given to the fur produced by the angora rabbit. The Angora rabbit - supplier of the fine Angora wool - is mainly bred in Europe and Asia. Although their names are similar, angora wool is different from mohair, which comes from the angora goat. Angora wool is known for its softness, thin fibres and what knitters call halo (fluffiness). It is also known for its silky texture. At the time of natural hair loss, the rabbit yields up to 500 grams of wool per year, which is obtained in three shearings or by combing out. As long as the rabbit is kept in natural conditions, it provides a very light, white wool, which is hollow and therefore particularly good at keeping warm. Angora wool can absorb up to 60 % of its weight in moisture, is soft, light, fluffy and very elastic. The hair of Angora rabbits has a high insulating capacity, but tends to mat. This is why angora wool is rarely spun pure, but is usually blended with other fibres, preferably merino wool, alpaca and/or synthetic fibres. This increases the durability, but the good properties are not affected.

Animal print is the term used to describe printed patterns on garments in which the fur pattern of various animals serves as a model. Leopard and zebra patterns are particularly popular. Snake patterns are also very common. To set extravagant accents, unusual colour shades such as neon colours are also used for the animal prints.

 The variations of this type of shoe are diverse and they come with both flat and high heels. They fill the gap between high-front pumps and boots.

Cotton is treated with the help of synthetic resins so that it becomes more elastic and the creasing behaviour is reduced.

Special finishing of wool with certain substances, which prevents felting or causes at least a considerable reduction in felting. Wool textiles thus become machine washable.

The surface of wool fibres is changed in such a way that no or only reduced felting of the fabric takes place. By chemically removing the scales or covering the edges of the scales with plastics, the hooking of the scales is avoided.

Pilling is the formation of small, rather unsightly nodules and fluff, which is characteristic of synthetic fibres and wool. It is prevented by film-forming substances or solvents.

To prevent the electrostatic charging of textiles, their surface is treated so that the electrical conductivity is increased.

Sewn-on, decorative styling elements that correspond to the respective trend and contemporary taste. Mostly made of leather or corduroy, they are mainly attached to the pockets of trousers or jackets. Appliqués in the form of sleeve patches are often found on blazers and jackets. Appliqués have a long tradition and make textiles unique.


Belt that is attached to the back for decoration as well as to keep the width of coats and jackets at the same time.

Slits of different heights at the hem of jackets and coats, in the middle or at the side.

 In the past, the English nobility used it to mark their stationery, documents or buildings. Later, the European nobility also adopted this marking. Today, they are often embroidered or printed patches that are particularly eye-catching and serve as decoration on garments.

Textiles with bamboo fibre are shiny, very fine and soft and create a natural feel similar to silk. The fibre is also characterised by excellent functional properties such as breathability, odour neutrality, extensive crease resistance and easy care. Bamboo is 100% biodegradable and bamboo plantations contribute to climate protection through their highCO2 absorption.

It resembles the French bag and denotes a slightly curved bag shape with a relatively steep side opening.

Densely rolled loden. Characteristic are the fibres laid parallel in one direction. Its wool fibres, laid on top of each other like roof tiles, create a special, water-repellent structure. In addition, loden is usually impregnated to repel water and is therefore also suitable as rain protection.

Borrowed from uniforms, patched and very spacious pocket. Has expansion gussets on the sides and bottom edge, increasing volume. It is closed with a flap, usually to be fastened with Velcro or a button. Closed, this type of bag looks thicker at the bottom than at the top and resembles a bellows.

Bengaline is a term for a type of fabric that originated in Bengal in the Near East. The cotton blend has a rep-like effect due to its weave. In India, this fabric is used for Punjabi suit-style clothing. A long tunic is worn over tight-fitting trousers without pockets. The term was expanded over time to include the characteristically tailored trousers.

With this trouser shape, the trouser legs end just above the knees, or they are cut to be knee-hugging. Bermudas look less sporty than shorts.

General term for discreet, two-coloured patterned fabrics, especially through melange or different yarn colours in warp and weft (changeant).

The ability of textiles and other materials to stretch in two different directions without losing their basic shape. This is also referred to as "longitudinally and transversely elastic fabric with high resilience".

Traditional Scottish pattern in blue-green colour scheme.

Ladies' or men's coat, designed in a blazer style. Featuring a lapel collar, horizontal flap pockets, narrow sleeves and single or double breasted fastening.

The name blazer is derived from the French word "blason" for coat of arms. It was originally a men's club jacket, sporty-elegant, with tailored shape. The classic blazer is made of dark blue worsted, but other colours are also used. The blazer is available in single or double-breasted, with lapel collar. In women's clothing, all single jackets that have a jacket-like cut are called blazers.

Mainly used in the production of jeans. The addition of bleach gives the jeans their light and washed-out appearance. This gives the jeans an individual character.

The purpose of bleaching is to obtain the pure white shade of the textiles, the natural dyes contained in the natural fibres are therefore removed.

Also called bomber jacket. Shorter jacket characterised by comfortable width, cuffed sleeves and waistband. The waistband is elasticated or has an adjustable button placket at the side.

The terms blue denim and black denim name the differently coloured fabrics from which trousers and overalls were made. In the production of denim, warp threads dyed either blue or black are woven into the white weft threads. From the inside, all denims are therefore light.

The waistband height indicates the height of the waistband. It results from the difference between side length and step length.

 Fabrics made of boiled wool are particularly suitable for outdoor clothing. Through a natural process, these fabrics become water repellent and can withstand even drizzle without soaking. Fabrics made from boiled wool have a firm structure that also makes them wind-resistant. At the same time, they have a pleasant, soft feel. The secret of boiled wool fabrics is quite simple: What is the death of every woollen jumper leads here to a desired densification of the wool fibres. Boiling causes the wool fibres to interlock with each other. This causes the fabric to shrink, but makes it particularly resistant afterwards. After drying, this very strong but pleasantly soft to the touch fabric can be made into garments that are well suited for outdoor use due to their properties. The result is weather-resistant garments that do not require any chemical substances to make them water-repellent.

Adjustable, stitched fabric strips of different widths and lengths for width adjustment or for fixing, also as decoration, e.g. as sleeve tabs, belt tabs, collar tabs or shoulder tabs.

Term for the property of fabrics that results from "bonding" or "laminating". In this process, outer and lining fabrics or only outer fabrics are joined together in several layers (e.g. by gluing).

Joining of two substances with the help of adhesives. The result is the effect of the more expensive doubleface, a "double fabric" with two different sides that can differ both in their material properties and in colour. With doubleface, however, the two fabric sides are firmly woven together and not glued together as with bonding. Bonding is mainly used for garments with a decorative inside or with a reversible function. It is an inexpensive alternative to the doubleface in its production and just as visually effective.

Bouclé (French for "loop") is a wool fabric with a bumpy surface, achieved by using fancy yarns with irregular, loop-shaped thickenings. Bouclé is often used as an outer fabric for elegant coats and blazers of noble and high quality. Bouclé stands for classic, timeless chic.

... also called silk linen, is a fabric with a striking structure. After the butterflies have hatched from the silkworms, the short fibre parts of the innermost and outermost envelope of the cocoon are processed together with the silk fibre waste in a spinning process to produce bourette silk. Characteristic of this is the typical nubby, not very shiny appearance as well as the smell, which varies from one harvest to the next and fades with time.

Also called a pinch pleat. Relatively deep pleat in which two ironed broken edges are placed so far together that they meet. The fabric between the two breaks forms the fold. This can be sewn down a bit along its edges, forming a spring pleat at the end of its seams.

Patch or cut-in welt or piped pocket on the left side of the front of jackets and blazers.

“Breathable" is the term used to describe the property of fabrics to transport moisture away from the body and thus prevent heat loss through wet clothing. The moisture produced by the body during movement evaporates and is released to the outside, thus preventing cooling. For breathability to "work", the temperature outside the clothing must be colder than near the body; the ideal temperature difference is 15 °C.

Broadcloth are naturally temperature and moisture regulating, antibacterial, water and wind repellent, durable and resistant to dirt.

Very thick yarns are present here. The ridge lines are formed by at least two warp elevations and depressions. Broad twill can be equal or unequal sided.

Brocade is a heavy, usually heavily patterned, high-quality fabric. While brocade garments used to be the preserve of the nobility and the rich, the invention of the Jacquard weaving process has largely democratised the use of brocade. However, the production of brocade is still costly today, so that it is usually only used in evening wear and for high-quality home textiles.

Men's shoe characterised by the heart-shaped hole pattern on the toe cap and the classic, slightly rustic style. Since the end of the 19th century, the shoe has been manufactured in Budapest. Brogue variants are also available as women's shoes, some with block heels.

Designation for cotton fabric in a so-called cross twill weave. Interrupted ridges appear in the tissue in alternating diagonal directions. On the upper side, the Broken Twill is smooth with a lively fine surface, on the underside there is a pattern similar to herringbone.

Measurements for trousers. Measured horizontally at the strongest point of the buttocks. As a convenience allowance, slide a finger under the tape measure. Corresponds to the hip size for men's trousers.

Classic button placket on the front of the trousers.

Sporty collar shape where the shirt collar points are buttoned onto the undercollar. The origin of the button-down collar is thought to be in the world of sport: polo players are said to have fixed the corners of the collar, which flutter around annoyingly when riding, with an additional button.


Côtelé is a ribbed fabric. The ribs are created by a special weaving technique. The weft thread is laid over several warp threads. The look is similar to a matt corduroy, but has a firmer surface.

Form borrowed from the navy between jacket and short coat in robust blue wool fabric. Other characteristic features include a wide lapel collar, a fitted cut, waist or belly pockets and eye-catching buttons. Originally developed as special clothing for Breton fishermen, at that time only in white.

Special offset pattern in which the stitches are crossed to form a plait.

Camel hair comes from one- or two-humped camels that shed up to four kilograms of wool each year. The more valuable wool is supplied by the two-humped camel, which lives in East and Central Asia. Camel hair is the four to six centimetres long, mostly light brown, slightly wavy downy hairs and the fifteen centimetres long, darker top or awn hairs of the camel. Camel hair coats and blankets are very famous because they are very light, felt-resistant and warming.

A textile pattern inspired by the military patch camouflage on military equipment and uniforms.

Canvas is a robust and hard-wearing fabric made of cotton, which is manufactured in a canvas or Panama weave. The front and back of the fabric look the same. Canvas is mainly used for casual wear, sports jackets, trousers and accessories such as bags and backpacks. The outer fabric can vary in stiffness and weight. The biggest advantage is its high resilience, which it owes to the special weaving technique. In addition, the fabric can withstand taut tension without losing its shape. Canvas is also water repellent because when water is absorbed, the fibres swell and the fabric closes.

Textile raw material obtained from the flax plant. The linen fibres consist of 70 % cellulose, the rest is plant glue. Both components give the fibre stiffness, strength, shine and absorbency. Linen - like cotton - is processed alone or in blends with chemical or other natural fibres. Linen is firmer and cooler to the touch than cotton, and can also absorb a little more moisture and more quickly. Linen is a distinctly summer fabric, because the fibre structure cannot store heat, so it tends to cool. The noble crease is also due to the fibre, because it is absolutely inelastic. Linen is the oldest of all fibre plants used for the production of textiles. In ancient Egypt, spotless white linen was considered a symbol of divine purity. Even the Egyptian mummies from the pyramids were wrapped in linen. Towards the end of the previous century, linen was displaced by cotton. With the increasing interest in ecological natural fibres since the end of the 20th century, linen is gaining in importance again.

Also tippet or poncho. Usually round-cut, wide, sleeveless cape with front closure, often also in slip-on form. With and without hood, in different lengths. Often found on traditional clothing, made from whale wool or loden, also made from waterproof materials as a rain cover. The design is similar to that of a coat, but a cape has only pass-through openings instead of sleeves.

Finishing process to remove cellulosic components from the wool. The plant parts become brittle through treatment with mild acid and can thus be removed by blowing them out.

Removal of plant contaminants from wool, e.g. burdock, ingested by the animals. In this process, the raw wool is subjected to a treatment with diluted sulphuric acid.

The fibres in this yarn are somewhat tangled, in contrast to the worsted yarn. This creates a woolly, rough surface. This yarn is used especially in the winter collection on coarser pitches.

The designation goes back to a British general named James Thomas Brudenell, 7. Earl of Cardigan, who played a major role in the Crimean War. To equip his troops for the campaigns against the cold, he equipped them with woolen cardigans. Today, the term cardigan is used for both coarse- and fine-meshed leisure cardigans for women and men.

The cargo pocket has its origins in uniform clothing. A characteristic feature of the cargo pocket is that it is usually attached to the side of the garment and finished with pinch pleats. Cargo pockets are best known for their use on cargo trousers at thigh and knee level.

Sporty trousers for women and men with patch or sewn-in side pockets in the thigh or knee area, which are usually made of robust cotton or linen fabric. These types of trousers are often used in the outdoor sector, as they are particularly functional with patch pockets on the thighs and in the knee area. Originally, cargo pants were the professional clothing of workers and soldiers. They could store their tools in the practical pockets.

Crossbreeding of cashmere and mohair goats. In terms of the strength and length of the fibre, this natural fibre corresponds to mohair; in terms of lustre, fineness and softness, it is comparable to genuine cashmere, but it is much more hard-wearing.

High-quality wool obtained by combing or plucking out the downy hair of the cashmere goat every year (approx. 100 g per animal). Because of its high price, the soft, supple and shiny cashmere wool is usually mixed with other types of wool and used for valuable clothing fabrics. Cashmere wool has very good heat retention properties and is very light and fine at the same time.

The most important basic building block of cellulosic man-made fibres, examples of cellulose fibres are: Viscose, Modal, Lyocell, Cupro, Acetate, Triacetate.

Cellulose is the main component of many plant fibres and serves as the starting raw material for the production of textiles made of cotton, viscose or linen (obtained from flax fibres). Yarns made from cellulose fibres or a fibre blend with cellulose content are soft and fine.

During the production of Ceramica, the finest clay minerals are worked into the fabric, which reflect UV rays so that they cannot penetrate the fabric. On the one hand, this has a temperature-balancing effect and, on the other, ensures an improved fibre structure: The fabric becomes more durable. Ceramica also has the advantage that the fabric is crease-resistant and easy to care for.

High quality seam typical of flat knits for sewing knitted fabrics. Each stitch is individually (!) pushed onto a chain ring so that the sewing thread can be "poked" exactly into the stitches.

Dark wool fabric can be provided with light contrasting stripes. The contours are blurred by light roughening.

Lightweight canvas fabric with white warp and coloured weft with a mottled look. Used e.g. as blouse or shirt fabric.

Depending on the incidence of light, the fabric has a colour-changing, iridescent surface. This property is particularly prominent in silk or synthetic fibres. Changeant is created when different colours are chosen for warp and weft in plain weave. This creates an iridescent effect.

Silk is debased. After this process, a mass loss of the silk can be noted. Metal salts or other chemicals can compensate for all or part of this.

The origin of the word comes from ancient Persia, where it is called "shah", meaning "king". This, in turn, is the origin of the name of the game of chess, which also comes from the Orient and whose playing field is a chequered pattern of white and black squares.

Once designed by Queen Victoria's shoemaker, this short ankle boot was popular as a riding boot, especially in rural areas. The features of the Chelsea boot are the two stretch inserts on the raised shaft, which ensure a firm fit despite the lack of lacing. In origin, the Chelsea is welted and has a slim silhouette.

Here, two threads are woven together in a special way, creating the soft and cuddly effect with its typical velvety sheen that is characteristic of this type of fabric. The base material for chenille can be natural fibres such as cotton, but also synthetic polyacrylic fibres. Chenille is mainly used for jumpers, scarves or gloves.

Chino trousers are light summer trousers made of chino twill, a fine fabric made of twill weave. The twill fabric was originally used for the uniform trousers of British and French soldiers in the 19th century and also found its way into civilian clothing after the Spanish-American War in 1898. Twill originates from the Chinese weaving tradition and was given the Spanish name Chino during the Spanish-American War. In order to save fabric when outfitting the army, the uniform trousers had no turn-ups. Chinos are hard-wearing, durable and versatile to combine.

This is a cotton fabric that is impregnated and calendered to give it a highly glossy, stain-resistant and water-repellent surface.

The bleaching of cellulosic fibres using sodium hypochlorite or sodium chlorite. Enabled fast, fibre-friendly bleaching and the achievement of a pure white shade. From an ecological point of view, however, chlorine bleaching is a very questionable process and has therefore been largely replaced by chlorine-free processes.

High, stiff stand-up collar with the front corners folded over. The very formal collar, which originated in the 19th century, is still being reinterpreted by fashion designers today.

Chrome-free tanning means tanning without the addition of chrome salts, which are mostly used in mineral tanning.

In the circular knitting machine, the needles are arranged in a circle. The basic fabric for sweats and shirts is produced on circular knitting machines.

A heavily felted loden, woven in plain or twill weave. It is not roughened and therefore has a smooth surface. This loden is used to produce trousers, skirts, suits, coats and costumes.

Matt wool fabric, characterised by a short stitch pile, strongly milled.

The coachman's coat was named after its former wearers, the coachmen. Typical features are its wide cut and the attached tippet (a cape-like shoulder cape).

To protect and finish textiles, they can be coated.  The coating of fabrics falls into the area of textile finishing and can serve different purposes. By applying a plastic layer, the "fabric" can be made air or water resistant, for example. In addition, the abrasion resistance of heavily used clothing can be strengthened and thus the service life extended. Last but not least, in addition to practical advantages, coating textiles also has a visual or haptic effect that gives garments a special look. In the subsequent process, these are solidified in a heating channel. The coating can be applied to the front or back of the outer fabric or to an incorporated backing material.

A coin pocket is the small fifth pocket that is riveted into the front right pocket of five-pocket jeans. Originally, the Coin Pocket was also called the Watch Pocket. It was used to safely store a pocket watch, as wristwatches were impractical for cowboys and gold prospectors and were also considered ladies' accessories for a long time.

Resistance of dyeings and prints to the effects of manufacture and use. For example, fastness to acids and alkalis can be classified under manufacturing fastness, while fastness to rubbing, water, washing, light, weather, seawater, ironing or solvents can be classified as fastness to use.

A liquid dye solution is applied to the textile to be dyed using textile auxiliaries such as salts, alkalis, acids. The dye is durably bonded to the textile by the action of heat and the corresponding dwell time.

A concealed button placket is used on outerwear such as shirts and shirts, but also on jackets and coats. A panel lies over the actual bar with the buttonholes. When the buttons are closed, they are completely covered by the panel. Jeans trousers with button fastening are also usually worked with a concealed button placket - unless the buttons are to be seen as fashionable details. In many cases, the concealed button placket is used for optical reasons. For jackets and coats, especially outdoor clothing and rainwear, it also has a practical use: It prevents moisture from entering through the buttonhole openings.

This term refers to a special dyeing technique for textiles. The clothes are first sewn and only then dyed. The aim is to achieve special effects that are reminiscent of batik. When wearing cool-dyed fashion, it should be noted that it can stain easily.

Trademark for outerwear fabrics in a light, summery texture, made from pure new wool.

A special polyester four-channel fibre that transports body moisture from the body to the fabric surface and dries quickly.

Corduroy is a coarse fabric that has velvet-like longitudinal ribs. Corduroy is also known as "Manchester" after the name of the place where the first corduroy trousers were produced. The fabric is usually 80-90% cotton. The advantages of clothing made from corduroy include air permeability and insensitivity to soiling. Corduroy is a weft velvet.  After slicing, the typical ribbed structure emerges. Depending on the number of ribs per 10 cm of fabric, a distinction is made between, for example, fine corduroy (more than 40 ribs), Genoa corduroy (25 to 40 ribs), and wide corduroy (more than 10 and less than 25 ribs).

Cotton is a natural fibre made from the seed fibres of the subtropical cotton plant and consists of 90 % cellulose. As early as the 3rd century BC, there are finds that prove that cotton was used to make light clothing. In addition to the country of origin, purity, fineness and supple feel are decisive for the quality of the material. Cotton fabrics can absorb moisture up to 65 % of their own weight, but they dry slowly. Thanks to its natural origin, cotton is also very skin-friendly and usually also well suited for allergy sufferers. Cotton fabric is tear-resistant and resistant to heat and alkalis, so it is extremely durable even with intensive use and frequent washing.
Disadvantages: shrinks during washing (solution: Sanforise), has a blunt grip (solution: Singeing), a matt look (solution: mercerise), tends to crease and, unlike wool, can only store a little heat.

The crease was only invented in the second half of the 19th century, through a mishap. During a derby, the Prince of Wales got caught in a downpour. His valet then placed the wet trousers between the mattresses of the bed to dry. After drying, the prince was so pleased with the good fit that he then had all his trousers given such a sharp crease. Creases can be fixed during trouser production so that they remain permanent.

Italian term for "curly". The fabric is made of fine-thread worsted wool or wool and polyester. These yarns are very finely structured. This creates the typical dry and grainy feel of Crespo fabrics. Especially comfortable to wear in the warm season. Another advantage of Crespo is its crease resistance.

Crinkle shows the fashionable crinkle look. Crinkle fabrics are made of or with cotton, silk or synthetic fibres. The fine creases are caused by heat treatment. Particularly pleasant: Ironing can generally be dispensed with.

Regularly changing the direction of the twill ridge (twill weave).

Double seam where two pieces of fabric are laid over each other so that one panel overlaps. The protruding part is folded over the other part and then stitched over it.

Laksen was the first hunting clothing manufacturer to start developing its own membrane, which, in addition to the well-known properties such as waterproof, windproof and breathable, was to be particularly quiet for hunting. In fact, this project succeeded with the development of the CTX membrane. The CTX membrane is not only very quiet, but also impresses with its performance: 20 000 mm water column/m² and 30 000 g per m² /24 h water vapour transmission are values that speak for themselves and make the CTX membrane predestined for hunting use.

A piece of fabric that finishes the sleeve of a shirt or blouse. Cuffs can differ in shape and, depending on the design, require a cuff link to close them. As an important wearing tip, it is worth mentioning: the cuff should always run to the back of the hand and thus protrude slightly from the jacket sleeves when a jacket is worn over it. There are different types of cuffs, which can be distinguished as follows: Turn-up cuff, sports cuff, combination cuff.

Sleeves with sewn-on and tucked fabric cuffs. Narrower and softer texture than the cuff.

Cuin is the unit of measurement for the qualitative classification of down. Cuin stands for cubic inches and describes a ratio of weight to space. To measure the quality of down, it is placed in a cylinder and weighted down. The higher the quality of the down, the more it withstands the weight and collapses less quickly due to its higher bulking power.

The culotte originated in the 17th and 18th centuries. These were knee-breeches worn by men, which were tight-fitting, especially after 1700, and were therefore called pants (= culotte). It reached from the waist to just below the knees and was held together there with buttons and a knee buckle. In today's fashion, it refers to wide, leg-covering midi trousers with a loose fit at the waist and a flowing fabric that gives them a fluttery character.

Also called copper art silk. A cellulose fibre made from cotton waste using the copper oxide ammonia process. Articles made of cupro can have a shine like mulberry silk or a special treatment that gives them a look like wash silk. Wearing properties and washability are comparable to viscose.

The shark collar is the most modern form of collar and has a broad collar position. It is also known as a shark collar or cutaway collar. The hallmark of a shark collar is the widely spaced collar wings, which look as if a piece has been bitten off or cut away from the classic Kent collar. Shark collar shirts are best combined with suits with wide lapels and a tie with a large knot.


Uniform colour gradient within a piece of garment from light to dark or also from different colours. The effect can be achieved by dyeing or by knitting different coloured yarns.

Darts ensure the correct fit of the garment. In order for them to fit the body perfectly, the cuts must be designed so that the garments do not show any unwanted folds or bulges where a smooth, perfectly snug fit is desired.

Treatment of goods with steam to restore their natural moisture. In addition, the gloss obtained during pressing is reduced.

Due to the use of raw silk yarns, woven and knitted fabrics have a hard and brittle appearance. The process of boiling in weak soapy water removes the silk glue contained in the yarn and the solidification dissolves.

Removing the dye from raw silk. The resulting weight loss can be compensated for by subsequent weighting of the silk.

The term denim is derived from the French "Serge de Nîmes" (fabric from Nîmes) and refers to a particularly durable fabric that was originally used to make work clothes. As early as the 17th century, the small textile mill town of Nîmes, after which the popular cotton fabric was named, was known for its high-quality fabrics. Denim is a classic among all fabrics and is woven particularly densely. Characteristic of denim are the warp threads dyed with indigio and the untreated, white weft threads. The fabric weight of denim is given in ounces.

Deutschleder is a very robust atlas fabric made of cotton cloth.
The very heavy fabric is woven with strong warp yarns and a high density of weft yarns with up to 400 threads per inch (up to over 15 per mm). It has a fine and dense surface, but unlike moleskin it remains smooth and is not roughened on one side. It is the basis for workwear that is subject to high wear and is traditionally processed in guild clothing.
New Deutschleder is often very stiff. It gradually acquires its final fit through wearing.

The figure shape rhombus is a square standing on its tip. Other names: Argyle design, Burlington pattern.

The desired pattern or design is transferred directly from the computer to the printing machine, so there are no limits to the design of the patterns.

Type of dyeing in which the textile material to be dyed is only partially immersed in the dye liquid. The rest of the fabric retains the original colouring and a colour contrast is created. Through multiple, graduated dipping, the result is a colour gradient. This can also be created with different colours or shades.

Also called English seam. This runs from the shoulder, across the chest to the hem. This concept saves the back, bust and waist dart.

In 1895, passionate sailor and inventor Paul Sperry invented the world's first boat shoe. In the meantime, the Docksider is considered a classic and is not only worn by passionate sailors, but also as a normal leisure shoe. As a rule, the boat shoe is made in the style of a moccasin. Typical of this type of shoe is the leather strap running around the upper, which can be used to adjust the fit and width of the shoe. In addition, some models are equipped with padding above the leather strap running around the shaft. This makes the sailing shoe more comfortable to wear and also prevents slipping.

Sporty fabric named after its home in North West Ireland, predominantly plain weave, light warp, dark weft, with a tweedy character and lively freshness. Originally, Donegal was a handwoven fabric made from land wool with interspersed "nubs".

Bayer AG manufacturer's trademark for an elastane fibre; spun with other materials (natural or man-made fibres). The fabric (e.g. cotton) retains elasticity, is less susceptible to creasing, allows more freedom of movement and is more comfortable to wear.

Double dyeing process for jeans or cotton fabrics. The material is completely dyed, then dyed over again on the top side; gives intensive colour and high colour fastness.

Double Face is a woven fabric with "two faces" that can be processed and worn on both sides, i.e. it shows different colours and patterns or fabric qualities on the two sides. Textiles made from it can be turned if processed appropriately. The fact that two layers of fabric are joined together often makes the fabric a little heavier. Wool fabrics, but also silk and man-made fibres are often used for Double Face.

One, two, three or more pairs of buttons arranged in two parallel rows. Available for suits, blazers, suits or coats.

Invisible tape running all around or only attached to certain parts. Designed to regulate the width of the model. It is located, for example, on a hood, on the waistband of trousers, on the hem (integrated into the hem turn-up) or at waist level of a top. But there can also be a drawstring on pockets, fabric bags or on the sleeve cuff or leg hem, which serves for flexible adjustment or allows the pocket or bag to be closed.

A duffle coat is a sporty short coat shape. In Anglo-American usage also Montgomery or Toggle Coat. Characteristic features are the hood, toggle buttons and large patch pockets. Distinctively designed decorative seams and leather trimmings in combination with the outer material, whale wool or loden, give the coat its specific sporty, slightly tart character.


Fabrics with this finish are easy to iron and clean. The fabric does not crease easily and usually hardly pills at all.

Refining processes to give animal and cellulosic fibres properties of synthetic fibres. Crease resistance, easier ironing, more stability, as well as the possibility of simplified cleaning without reducing the abrasion resistance.

Elasthane is a highly elastic synthetic fibre that is spun with other materials (natural or man-made fibres) and was developed by the chemical company DuPont. Elasthane has been used since 1959, although at that time it was still known as Fibre K. Elasthane is made from polyethylene glycol and polyurethane. This produces a rubber-like fibre that is very stretchy and extremely strong. Elasthane is extremely tear-resistant, permanently shape-retaining and lightweight. It is used to make comfortable, fitted clothing such as underwear and sportswear. When added to trousers, for example, elasthane creates a stretch effect. The garments retain their shape and allow greater freedom of movement and thus more wearing comfort.

Surface treatment of sweat or shirting fabric that creates a pleasant, soft feel.

Enzymes are increasingly used in the processing of textiles to achieve a fashionable, striking look. For example, cellulases are used to specifically cause small tears in the cotton fibres. Enzymes as auxiliary agents have the advantage over hydrogen peroxide that their use can significantly save water. Compared to using pumice stones to create a used look, the application of enzymes is also less time-consuming.

Shoulder boards of military origin for attaching rank insignia. Used in civilian fashion as a buttoned bar, usually returned from the collar seam through a loop at the base of the sleeve, close to the neck, with a purely decorative function.


A woven fabric is a flat structure consisting of two or more thread systems that intersect at right angles in the warp and weft directions. The warp runs parallel and the weft at right angles to the selvedge. To label a tissue, the following are required: Raw material, yarn type, weaving technique, weave, setting, patterning, type of finish and, if required, basis weight.

Fade-out is the term used to describe a special effect in outer fabrics dyed with pigment dyes. The fabric is washed out before processing. This allows the popular used look to be achieved. By washing out, several shades of a colour tone or even original colour gradients - for example from light to dark - can be created.

Economy, ecology and social issues are the three pillars of the Fairtrade standards. All producers and traders must adhere to these standards - only then may their products be labelled with the Fairtrade seal.

Refers to an artificially produced fur that mimics the original in shape and colour.

One or more basement folds superimposed on top of each other and springing up from a point in a fan shape.

Woven fur is the term used to describe the imitation of natural fur made from synthetic fibres. Unlike velvet and plush, woven fur has a high pile. Also known as faux fur, woven fur is made from two different yarns. A strongly twisted cotton yarn serves as the base yarn. The pile is made of fine polyacrylic. When the two materials are woven together, the pile threads are joined to the base yarn and conveyed to the visible surface. In addition, elastic polyurethane adhesive is applied to the underside to prevent the hair from falling out.

Felt is a textile fabric whose structure is created by felting sheep's wool and various animal hairs under the influence of pressure and moist heat. The felting of already finished fabrics is called fulling. This technique is somewhat younger than the technique of weaving. The advantages of felt include its temperature resistance and low flammability. It is also heat insulating, moisture repellent and soundproof. Felt is often used to make hats, slippers, boots and jackets.

Very common blends are those of natural fibres with man-made fibres. Fibre blends are intended to eliminate negative properties, achieve special effects and improve care properties, usage properties and durability. For example, cotton is mixed with modal to combine the absorbency of the natural fibre with the high stretch of the synthetic fibre.

A field jacket is a garment of the soldier's uniform and served as a model for this faithful reproduction, made of strong poplin or gabardine, mostly in the olive-green shades of the model.

French for "thread to thread". Carpet-shaped small pattern created by using alternating light and dark warp and weft threads. Use for suits and costumes.

Fill power is a measure for down and other fillers that indicates the volume the filling (down, polyester, etc.) recovers after compression (pressing together).

Fabric that is finely ribbed diagonally.

Very finely striped shirt. The stripes are created by two to four coloured yarns in the warp.

Gauge designation of a knitting or hosiery machine, indicating how many needles there are per inch (25.4 mm).

Final measure of textile finishing to achieve the desired look and feel. The finish gives the fabric special properties, e.g. changing the surface structure by emerizing, sanding or roughening.

This is a collective term for all processes that increase the utility value of textiles after production, change or refine their character, surface or appearance, e.g. sanforising, emerizing, stone washed. Some finishes are already applied to the yarn, e.g. Superwash or Total Easy Care.

Decorative collars, jabots, ruffles on dresses and blouses, ribbons, feathers, flowers or other embellishments fall under the term.

The term is mostly used sporty trousers and classic jeans without pleats, and means that the trousers have five pockets. Two pockets are on the back, two more pockets are on the front, and a small additional pocket is riveted to the front right pocket on five-pocket style trousers. This small pocket is also called a coin pocket or watch pocket. The original jeans were designed as five pocket trousers.

Flammé or flame yarn is a fancy yarn. The characteristic crosswise structure of the yarn is created by deliberate thickening. On the surface there are short and long reinforced thread sections that resemble the shape of a flame. Often these sections can also be in different colours. The flame yarn is produced on a fancy twisting machine or on a roving card by adding roving remnants or fleece remnants to the base material. The flame effect is evident in the irregular and elongated thickenings in the yarn. Depending on the desired effect, the distance, thickness and length of the thickenings can be influenced using different techniques.

Flannel is a fabric in plain weave or twill weave, which is napped on one or both sides. Classically, flannel is made of wool, but viscose, microfibre or cotton are also often used. Flannel is not only warming, but one of its best qualities is that it is very easy to care for and crease-resistant. These properties are created by roughening (for cotton) or fulling (for wool) one or both sides. Flannel is not only used in the production of high-quality suits, but also for hard-wearing workwear. The exact designation depends on the material, e.g. worsted or carded flannel.

In a flap pocket, the pocket opening is covered with a flap, in various shapes and widths, loose or buttoned. A flap pocket is applied horizontally to the garment and is equipped with a flap.

 Flat designed waist and hip area, no width is created here by the use of pleats.

Usually a two-bed machine for the production of knitted fabrics in various gauges and with multi-layered patterning possibilities. Flat knit is also a common generic term for jumpers and knitted jackets.

Fabric in a derived twill weave, characterised by a flat ridge, < 45 degrees. Ridge-forming weft floats give rise to the flat burr twill. Used for coat and jacket fabrics.

 Flat weave, made of cotton. Used as an alternative to denim. Gabardine, poplin, canvas and twill are examples.

Sewing the fabric using a flatlock seam (or flat seam) is a technique that is particularly suitable for stretch fabrics such as jersey. Flatlock seams are often found on T-shirts. The underside is marked by thread intersections (as with an overlock seam). The top side shows either two parallel quilting seams or thread intersections as well. Flatlock seams are usually worked with a coverlock sewing machine, but are also possible with any common overlock machine. With the latter, the cut edges are no longer visible due to a special folding technique. By pulling the sewn fabric pieces apart, the characteristic flat seam is created - also with thread intersections at the bottom, and with individual adjacent stitches at the top.

Flax is one of the oldest useful plants. It is particularly robust, so environmentally harmful pesticides can often be dispensed with during cultivation. The natural fibre linen is obtained from the mostly pale yellow "stalk bast". Linen is hard-wearing and has a noble shimmer. In fashion - especially in natural fashion - linen is nowadays especially often made into blouses, shirts, dresses and suits.

Fleece fabrics are light, voluminous, breathable and easy-care knitted fabrics with a velvety, soft and warming fibre pile, mostly made of polyester or polyamide, which are characterised by pleasant wearing comfort. They are a good alternative to heavy woollen fabrics because, unlike them, they are light and water-repellent. Fleece also has an insulating effect, which makes it a good protection against the cold. Because of these properties, fleece is a preferred material for outdoor clothing. Other benefits: It is crease-resistant, machine-washable and exceptionally soft and cosy against the skin. It comes in different quality grades, which are measured according to its density.

Raw wool of the sheep. This is divided into different quality lots. A high number here stands for a reduced quality of the area.

The term "flora" refers to the world of plants. The design of the patterns and motifs is also related to this; flowers, grasses, tendrils, leaves are design elements.

Flounce is a sewn-on trim on a textile product. The flounce differs from the ruffle in that it is cut in a circle. This makes the fabric fall softer and more pleasing. A flounce is usually sewn on smoothly and not gathered like a ruffle.

Denotes the width of the trouser leg, measured at the leg end (trouser hem).

Patch pocket stitched in a wide shape all around. A flap pocket is always incorporated into the frame pocket.

The French bag is a more elegant pocket variation, which is mainly used with trousers. It allows convenient and easier access to the side trouser pockets. The opening usually runs straight from the waistband to the side seam. The pocket ends clearly next to the belt loop. The pocket position ranges from vertical to a 45° angle. Piping or lasts are usually used to reinforce the mesh. A variation of the French pocket is the so-called banana bag, which has a curved end.

Double breasted, knee length, fitted jacket for men. The frock coat originated around 1800 from the rococo justaucorps, whose construction goes back to the 17th century armour. The attached lap (skirt connected to waist) is typical. Made of dark cloth, the frock coat is nowadays combined with narrow trousers and is also popular in women's fashion. Today, a frock coat is also a figure-hugging, fitted, long jacket, also called an overjacket or overcoat. The terms long jacket or long jacket are also used less frequently.

The slanted opening of front top pockets runs from the waistband to the side seam and is used for slim business trousers as well as chinos or for Marlene trousers. The easy access is considered particularly comfortable.

Classically designed men's shoe in a leaf cut, characterised by the Lyra perforation. The semi-brogue is somewhat simpler in its design.


Underwear whose function is to wick moisture away from the body to avoid feeling wet and cold (e.g. sports underwear and thermal underwear).


Gabardine is a dense fabric made of combed wool (worsted weave) with distinctive "cross-grooves". Fine gabardine is characterised by a finer surface quality due to closely set ridges. The inside becomes smooth and skin-friendly through a finishing treatment.

Decorative stripes, mostly made of silk. On both outsides of dinner jacket or tailcoat trousers, the embellishment enhances the garment.

Ppt stands for "Pronto per tinta" and means "ready to dye". Garment dye stands for "piece dyeing" and refers to the dyeing process after a textile has been completed. The textiles, initially produced in raw white, are dyed completely, i.e. in the case of trousers, for example, including labels and pocket linings. The colour is then washed out, which means that the material already adapts advantageously to the washing process and does not shrink much after purchase.

Garment Wash stands for the washing of ready-made garments. First of all, this washes out any dirt and ink residues that have accumulated during the production process. Desirable effects are also achieved for the individual garment.

Gauge designation for knitting machines; tells how many stitches are distributed over 1.5 inches (38.1 mm). The higher the gauge number, the finer the knitted fabric (see also "Stitch").

Finest Australian merino wool, named after the Australian city of Geelong. The wool of sheep that are a maximum of seven months old is called Geelong wool. If this wool was obtained from the guaranteed first shearing of the lambs, it is called Super Geelong. Properties of Geelong wool: very soft and fluffy, high colour brilliance, reduced pilling, high form stability and resistance due to particularly long staple (= long) fibres.

In French, a general term for waistcoats of all kinds, in German "Gilet" refers to a fitted, body-hugging waistcoat with elaborate decorations on the front and a plain back made of lining fabric.

Soft, shiny leather made from lamb or kid skins (fur of a domestic goat a few weeks old). Classically used for glove processing.

Glencheck is a worsted fabric in an equilateral twill weave in which light and dark threads alternate in warp and weft to produce small checks and stripes that group together to form wider stripes and oversquares. Glencheck is used for suits and costumes.

Box pleat inserted on the right and left of the back for jackets. This runs from the shoulder seam to the waist seam and increases the wearing comfort of the jacket. Jackets with a golf pleat are called golf jackets.

Functional fabric from the company Gore. Gore-Tex® is processed as a liner or used as a laminate. GORE-TEX® products combine durable waterproofing and windproofing with optimum breathability.

Undercoat (woolly and downy hair) of the wild sheep camel breed Guanaco living in the Andes.


A row in which all needles are knitting alternates with a row of stitches in the front, handle in the back. On the front you can see pronounced, slightly curved, right-hand stitches (a "pearl"). This type of knit is used especially for making thick winter jumpers.

Edge seam, this is formed by longer, interrupted stitches. The name refers to the handmade look of these decorative, brightly contrasting seams.

Rim decoration, characterised by its openwork nature. Threads are pulled out and the remaining ones are tied together with a loop stitch.

Loop of thread placed in the needle head in addition to the stitch formed in the previous row; the previous stitch is thus drawn out in length.

The term "herringbone" refers to a stair-shaped fabric with a stepped lace twill weave, reminiscent of herringbones laid several times next to each other.  Herringbone fabric can be made from different materials and yarns, namely linen, polyester or wool. Combinations of these materials are also possible. The robust and strong fabrics are comfortable to wear.

Fine threaded, twisted yarns are woven into a light fabric. The result is a modern woven look and a grainy feel. Special advantages: crease-resistant, elastic, cool and dry feel.

Measurement for women's trousers; measured as the circumference at the strongest part of the buttocks. As a convenience allowance, a finger is slipped under the measuring tape. For men's trousers, the seat width corresponds to the hip width.

Made from the hooves or horns of various animals. Often used in the design of traditional clothing.

Plain weave fabric designed with a two- or multi-coloured check pattern. The claw-like extensions at the corners of the checks create the impression of a footprint from the rooster. Textiles with a houndstooth pattern are woven in plain weave. Often the pattern is black and white, more rarely are designs in other colour combinations.

Woven fabric in plain weave made of linen, half-linen or cotton. The use of different shades of green in the yarn gives the fabric a mottled appearance.


Icelandic wool comes from Icelandic sheep, native to harsh Nordic regions. The dense wool hair is particularly warm, strong and water-repellent.

Imitation leather (polyurethane) can hardly be distinguished from real leather due to its grain embossing and soft fabric. It is just as fashionable as leather, but easier to care for, and offers a consistent material quality. By eliminating the costly manufacturing processes of genuine leather, imitation leather is more cost-effective.

Textiles are soaked in or sprayed with water-repellent chemicals, in which case the breathability must not be impaired.

Inch is an American measure of length and corresponds exactly to 2.54 centimetres.

Indigo has been used since pre-Christian times as a dye for a deep blue that almost fades into violet. Indigo can be obtained naturally from the Indian indigo plant or the European woad. Synthetic indigo has been produced since 1870 and gives denim fabrics their characteristic colour. The "blue jeans" invented by Levi Strauss owe their name to the blue of the indigo. The indigo dye is sensitive to light and friction. The textile industry uses these properties to give jeans garments a "used look".

Distance between crotch (gap start) and leg end, measured at the inseam.

Insulation is the ability to store heat.

In its original meaning, an inlay is a special inlay technique used in woodworking. Different types of wood are combined to form decorative ornaments. In the fashion sector, this is the name given to a special type of knitting in which contrastly coloured motifs and patterns are worked into the knitted fabric. An intarsia is an embedded knit in which the coloured material threads do not run through the entire knitted fabric. Intarsia is popular as a fashionable decorative ornament in jumpers, hats and scarves, but also dresses and other knitwear.

Fabrics that are applied to the inside of the garment to ensure shape retention and, if necessary, stand.

Fine, very stretchy double-faced knitted fabric. Both sides of the fabric show stocking stitches. Interlock is made on two needle beds where the needles face each other exactly and work alternately. This results in a warming, stretchy, smooth fabric surface that stays in shape permanently and thus ensures high wearing comfort.

International Wool Secretariat, representing the interests of wool producers for the promotion and quality protection of new wool production. Now Woolmark Company.


Jacquard refers to a weaving technique that allows machine-printed, endless patterns. It was named after the inventor, a French weaver. The patterns can be knitted in, embroidered in or crocheted in and require a counting template with the help of which they are applied to or inserted into the base fabric. This is done using a special Jacquard loom or corresponding knitting machines.

Bavarian-Austrian traditional jacket. Characterised by their straight cut, often without a collar or with a stand-up collar. Horn or metal buttons, appliqués or embroidery intensify the traditional character.

The word "jeans" derives from the name of the Italian port city of Genoa. “Genoese" was the name given to Italian sailors who wore plain-cut work trousers made of heavy cotton twill. In American slang, it became the word "jeans".

Jersey is a soft, stretchy fabric also known as tricot. It can be knitted or crocheted from viscose yarns as well as viscose blends, wool, wool blends, cotton or silk. Visually, it presents itself like a woven fabric with a slightly ribbed pattern. Knitted fabric worked on one or two sides, characterised by crease resistance and limited stretch. Formerly single-knit waistcoats made of coarse wool, as worn by fishermen on the English island of Jersey, where the material was first produced. Different types of jersey are distinguished according to the respective manufacturing technique, such as the loose, elastic single jersey and the more robust double jersey.

Riding trousers, balloon-like on the thighs, tight-fitting on the lower legs. The crotch and seat are usually reinforced on the inside with an abrasion-resistant material (e.g. leather) and are narrow from the knee down, but cut wide enough to fall over the boot. The name derives from the Indian princely state of Dzhodhpur, known for its horse breeding and the spread of the game of polo.

Bast fibre from the stem of the jute plant. Jute fibres are highly woody and uneven in texture. Strength and elasticity are comparable to linen fibre. Used, among other things, for packaging fabrics, carpet base fabrics, wall coverings.


Kapok belongs to the group of "plant hairs" and is cultivated in the subtropics. The kapok fibres come from the inside of the kapok fruit, which are formed in various tropical "wool trees" such as the cotton tree of West Africa. This grows without chemical pollution mostly in the rainforest and grows up to 70 metres high. Kapok is six times lighter than cotton, thermoregulating and breathable. Because of its silky feel, kapok is also known as vegetable cashmere. Thanks to the development of an innovative process, kapok can be spun with cotton. Due to the naturally high fat and air content of 80 percent, the kapok fibres are water-repellent, fine and soft.

The collar is particularly distinguished by its widely spaced shape and tapered collar legs, making it very flexible when it comes to tie knots. All knots, tie shapes and bow ties fit this very fashionable collar. It was originally developed for use with the double Windsor knot - the favourite tying technique for ties of the first Duke of Kent, who felt cramped by the standard collar shapes of the time and to whom the collar developed especially for him also owes its name.

Boiling the cotton under pressure and adding caustic soda to remove husk parts and accompanying substances such as waxes, pectins and sizing.

Slim-fit trousers with a fixed waistband. Compared to the knickerbockers, the knee breeches do not create an overlap due to their narrow line.

Front trouser lining for ladies' and men's trousers, especially for woollen articles. Advantages: improved wearing properties, prevents scratching.

Wide-cut trousers with the fly covering the firmly designed waistband.

Collective term for all knitted products.

Generic term for knitted fabric.

Borrowed from the military, moderately wide doubling up on the front and / or back in the coat or jacket fabric, occasionally asymmetrical at the front. Also used to cover a vent through slits or permeable materials in sportswear and rainwear, sometimes only indicated as yoke stitching.


Instead of a collar, a tucked ribbon is attached to the neckline. The ends of the ribbon run out long and can be tied into a loop.

In the high plateaus of the Andes of South America, the llamas live under extreme climatic conditions. The so-called camel sheep, descended from the wild guanacos and vicunjas, are smaller than camels but larger than the alpaca. The female animals are used for wool production. The llama can only be shorn every two years, so the silky hair, which comes in a wide variety of natural colours from white to black and dark brown to reddish brown, is correspondingly precious and rare. Just as the animals are protected from temperature extremes by their coat, humans also benefit from the temperature-balancing advantages of llama hair. It gives a balancing, natural warmth for comfort and well-being. In addition, dirt and water are repelled, the llama hair is insensitive.

Lamb nappa is a supple smooth leather from lamb, but nappa leather can basically come from any animal species. The name goes back to the US-American Napa Valley, where this type of leather was originally developed primarily for processing into gloves and winter clothing.

Lambswool is the wool from the first shearing of lambs up to six months old. It is short and not very firm, but particularly fine and soft and is mostly used for knitwear. The fibres have a fine tip, are soft and have a delicate crimp.

Non-separable connection of different textile surfaces and membranes by means of ultra-fine adhesive dots using hot glue. Two-ply laminate/direct laminate: Membrane laminated to reverse side of outer fabric, covered by loosely fitted lining. Properties: high water vapour permeability, high wearing comfort, wind- and waterproof.

Lapel on blouses, coats, jackets and jackets connected to the collar by the mirror seam.

To reduce the extent of shrinkage in fabrics made of cellulosic fibres, they are treated with an alkaline solution. The shrinkage caused by this is intended to counteract the danger of subsequent shrinkage.

Leather is one of the oldest cultural assets of mankind. Leather is the hair removed from different animals and made durable by tanning. There are goatskin, sheepskin, horsehide and reptile leather, among others. However, leather comes particularly often from cattle or calves. The quality of animal skin depends on the origin, lifestyle, diet, sex, species and age of the animal. The process of tanning was already known to the ancient Egyptians in the 4th century BC.

Originally designed as footwear for college students, the loafer is a shoe that does not require laces or other fastenings. The shaft runs along under the foot and is closed on its upper side with the leaf insert. The heeled outsole gives a secure stance.

Durable woollen fabric. A distinction is made between bar loden (heavy quality) and cloth loden (light, soft-flowing quality). Often it is rolled in several operations, which makes it particularly weatherproof. Loden is a typical quality for country house fashion and is primarily used there for coats, jankers, costumes and hats.

Since 1826, the traditional weaving mill Lovat Mill has been located in Hawick, Scotland, on the banks of the River Teviot. The firm tweed keeps you warm and is resistant, even to moisture. In its colour variations, it is reminiscent of the Scottish landscape.

Waist-short, sporty waistband jacket shape that, unlike the blouson, does not bunch at the waist.

Lurex is the registered brand name for a polyester yarn developed in England that has a metallic appearance due to a special manufacturing process. Woven with other yarns made from synthetics, wool or cotton, it gives garments a special flair that makes them look striking and extravagant. The more densely it is woven, the stronger its silver or gold metallic effect.

The term "lustre" is derived from the French "lustre" and refers to the surface sheen of the shimmering fabric. The fabric is plain weave and consists of warp-knitted cotton. The weft is made of worsted yarn, mohair or alpaca ("fil lustré" = "shiny yarn"). In the past, the fabric was used more often than today, especially for outerwear such as jackets, aprons and school uniforms.

Manufacturer's brand of the company Du Pont. Highly elastic fibre that is spun with other materials (natural or man-made fibres). Lycra is a very high-quality synthetic fibre that is characterised by elasticity, durability and the ability to dry quickly. This gives a fabric (e.g. cotton) resilience and makes it less susceptible to creasing. The garment allows more freedom of movement and wearing comfort.

Lyocell is also offered under the brand name Tencel® by Lenzing and is a cellulose fibre that is industrially produced from natural raw materials - especially eucalyptus wood. For the fibre, the cellulose is dissolved from the wood with non-toxic solvent and spun. It is biodegradable. The material is ideal for jersey, knitwear and woven fashion garments. The fibre combines numerous positive properties: It has a smooth surface, warms almost as well as virgin sheep's wool and is tear-resistant when wet. Lyocell is also very durable. Similar to linen, it provides a cool feel and effectively wicks moisture away from the body by absorbing 50 percent more water than cotton.


Canvas-bound cotton fabric, very fine. Characterised by large arranged checks. The colour white is never found in the madras fabric, the design is kept without contrast.

Man-made fibres are artificially produced fibres that do not occur in nature. On the one hand, these can include fibres with natural raw materials such as cellulose (obtained from various woods or bamboo), rubber or proteins. However, the term also refers to fabrics made from man-made fibres, for example polyester or polyamide, which are made from synthetic polymers. The thread is created by means of a spinning process, where the spin mass is pressed through nozzles under pressure. Man-made fibres can be very fine and thin, but also voluminous. They have a shiny, matt, warming, cooling and moisture transporting texture, depending on the design of the fibre. They can be mixed very well with each other, but also with natural fibres. These combinations can be used to increase the utility value of the textiles.

Material dyed differently in the comb or in the flake, i.e. before the actual spinning process (e.g. 50 % white and 50 % black gives a grey effect). Not to be confused with mouliné yarns.

The term "melange" comes from the French language and means "mixture". In fabrics and yarns, melange means that either two or more differently coloured threads are processed. This creates varied patterns that give fabrics and yarns a characteristic look. The melange effect can be created by different yarns as well as by prints.

A membrane is a wafer-thin film that is bonded or welded to the fabric to create waterproof but breathable materials. The membrane can form the outer skin or be incorporated between two fabrics. A distinction is made between membranes with microfine pores (e.g. Gore-Tex®), which are more easily destroyed by mechanical action, and non-porous membranes (e.g. Sympatex), which are more robust. To maintain the functionality of the membrane, it is important not to use fabric softener when caring for it and to rinse intensively to remove detergent residues.

Mercerising is the finishing of cotton products and goes back to the Englishman John Mercer, who discovered by chance in the 19th century that caustic soda can positively influence the properties of cotton fabrics. The treatment with the lye causes the fibres to swell and change their properties: They become stronger and more stable, and they can also be dyed better, which is an enormous advantage for the production of clothing. In addition, mercerised cotton acquires a special sheen, similar to silk, which is resistant to washing. Similar effects are achieved by treatment with ammonia. Mercerising increases gloss, dye receptivity, strength, elongation and elasticity. Blends of cotton and man-made fibres can also be mercerised.

Merino wool comes from the merino sheep bred in Spain and is a particularly high-quality and very soft wool that feels very pleasant on the skin and does not scratch due to its extremely fine fibres. Export bans meant that the breeding of Merino sheep was reserved for the most distinguished farms in Europe. in 1723, the export ban was lifted, after which it found its way to the whole of Europe and even Australia. This type of wool from merino sheep provides fine to very fine quality. It is heavily crimped and has a soft feel. Merino is a very high quality wool.

Mesh is a fabric that makes garments more breathable, better ventilated and lighter. It fulfils different additional functions for each product.

Extremely fine and light synthetic fibre belonging to the polyester or polyamide group. Extremely fine filaments, where the fineness designation must be less than 1 dtex (10 000 m of a filament weighs 1 g). For comparison: Cotton has a fineness of 1.5 to 2.5 dtex, i.e. 10 000 m of the fibre weighs up to 2.5 g, while the fineness of microfibre is less than 1 dtex. But the fabric has even more to offer: It is also dimensionally stable, soft and quite durable, which is why it is preferred in the production of wind- and water-repellent functional fashion. In addition, textiles made of microfibre are characterised by another great advantage: They do not fluff.

Modern high-tech fibre, mostly made of polyester. Millions of microfine fibres form a knitted fabric that protects against wind, cold and moisture. The material is breathable and body moisture is transported to the outside.

This is a finishing process. The fabric is impregnated with special synthetic resins before it is made up and then dried at a high temperature. During this process, the fibre forms a new molecular bond with the synthetic resins. This process makes the fabric low-iron, dimensionally stable and washable. However, the wearing properties of the cotton are practically not changed in the process.

Designation for a finishing process for athletic fabrics. The outer fabric is pre-washed several times at the weaver. This washing process prevents further shrinkage and gives the fabric a soft handle and a casual surface appearance.

Minimal design refers to a small-scale, uniform pattern that usually extends over the entire textile. Geometric shapes such as circles or rhombuses are closely juxtaposed. Sometimes the elements contrast clearly with the basic colour of the fabric, but they can also be kept in almost the same tone or embroidered or sewn onto the garment using other materials. The design, which is often barely discernible from a distance, is often used for ties, shirts and trousers.

This type of shoe was originally made from one piece of deerskin, sometimes also from two pieces of hide. When processing two pieces of fur, one of the fur pieces was used for the bottom part, the other as a front leaf insert. The moccasins originate from the cultural treasure of the Native Americans. Depending on the tribe, the moccasins were decorated with shells, beads and porcupine bristles, for example. Since this type of shoe does not have a sole in the modern sense, and the leather underside wears out quickly, shoes were always produced in stock by the indigenous peoples of North America and were coveted barter goods. Today's moccasins no longer have much to do with the original shoes. These are much sturdier, have an additional sole and a lining.

Modal is a man-made fibre consisting of 100% cellulose and is often referred to as modified (improved) viscose, as the fibre is softer and at the same time more stable and stronger. Compared to viscose, modal has improved tear and abrasion resistance. Modal fibres also have similar properties to cotton and are therefore often used in blends for high quality products. At the same time, modal gives the cotton an elegant feel and fine sheen.

Mohair is the name of the long-haired, fine-fluffy wool of the Angora goat. To avoid confusion with the hair of the Angora rabbit, the Angora goat is referred to as "wool" and the Angora rabbit as " hair". The mohair goats originate from the Asian highlands, but are also kept in America, the Cape Province of South Africa and southern Europe. Mohair is pleasantly light and wonderfully warm. It is used for fine jumpers and scarves.

The term comes from the French and means "marbled". Moiré fabric is mostly made of silk or synthetic fibres. Characterised by its typical pattern, reminiscent of a wood grain or water waves. The different brightnesses are created by vigorously pressing two layers of the ribbed base fabric onto each other through heated, cylindrical rolling. Since the ribs are never exactly parallel, flatter, shinier spots appear at the crossing points. Since the shifting of the ribs is random, the resulting pattern does not repeat.

Moleskin is also called English leather or pilot (fabric) and is a strong, plain cotton fabric in twill or weft atlas weave, with high weft and low warp density. After weaving, unlike German leather, it is sanded and roughened on the left side, which gives it a soft surface and feel reminiscent of suede or velvet. Moleskin, which has become rare today, is mainly made into hard-wearing warm workwear.

Soft, plain weave cotton fabric - napped on both sides, in medium to heavy quality. Often also made in double-shot technique (top and bottom shot).

Mother-of-pearl buttons are made from the inner shell layer of shells or snails. The organic biomineral mother-of-pearl is characterised by its silky-matt sheen and iridescent play of colours, which can vary depending on the genus and geographical origin. The variety is great, brilliant white Makassar is considered the most valuable mother-of-pearl. Due to their variety of colours, iridescent surface and high stability, genuine mother-of-pearl buttons on blouses and shirts are considered a sign of quality.

A thread made of different coloured single threads. The colour effect is used as patterning. The mouliné effect can also be achieved by combining different yarns on the knitting machine (= mottling). Not to be confused with melange yarns.

It has a rustic fabric character and is made of coarser wool that comes from the Alpine region. It is often used to make coats and solid jackets.

Cotton fabric in plain weave. The very loose weaving of the warp and weft threads creates the typical fabric appearance.

Special type of knitting in which different divisions are combined within a knitted fabric. Special types of knitting machines are needed to make them.

The multi-function pocket is characterised by its multi-functionality, which is made possible by several access points and types of closure.

Muslin is a loosely woven fabric made of cotton, wool or viscose. Typical for the fabric quality is the soft inconspicuous fibre fluff on the surface. Muslin fabrics are particularly light and airy and are therefore preferred in summer fashion.


Nanoproducts penetrate into microscopically small material pores and seal the fibre surface without affecting the textile feel. This creates an outer fabric that is comparable to the self-cleaning surface of the lotus flower. Water- and dirt-repellent, breathable and quick-drying, moisture-wicking.

Nappa leather can be recognised by its smooth, supple, often slightly grained surface. This fine surface structure results from the original animal skin and is typical for the natural look of the leather. Each piece of nappa leather therefore has an individual character and becomes more beautiful from year to year through patina.

Aida- or panama-bonded fabric, characterised by a granular, porous character.

The non-iron finish can be attributed to the chemical finish of the cotton using synthetic resin. Due to its good ability to absorb and retain moisture, cotton tends to wrinkle. This recording process is limited by the synthetic resin equipment.

Textile fabric consisting of loose fibres. To ensure the cohesion of these and thus make them manageable, the fabric is consolidated. This is used as a fixation insert.

The typical jacket cut is characterised by: a short lapel, patch bellows pockets with flaps, box pleats in the back and a back strap. The design elements are further intensified by a wide quilting line.

Folkloric knitting pattern designed in two or more colours. Characteristic are the motifs inspired by winter nature, such as ice crystals, reindeer, fir trees, which are often arranged like borders.

Typical of nubuck leather is the velvety surface, which is created by carefully sanding the grain side. This gives the leather its fine velvety surface structure. Nubuck leather is made from grain-free calfskins and cowhides, sometimes also pigskins.

Nylon is a polyamide (exact name: Polyhexamethylene adipic acid amide). Originally, it was the brand name of the first polyamide fibre from DuPont. In the past, nylon was mainly used for the production of stockings (nylons). The polyamide fibre is particularly elastic and extremely stretchy. In addition, nylon is a tear-resistant fabric. The fabric is breathable and also prevents moisture from building up on the skin and allows air to circulate well within the garment.


The Oeko-Tex Standard 100 only takes into account the residues of harmful substances in the end product. The production steps or operational environmental protection are not taken into account here.

Structural knitted fabric created by transferring stitches and offsetting the needle bed.

The term "oil-dyed" refers to the look resulting from the dyeing process used: In this process, the respective textiles are cold-dyed after sewing. This creates washed-out effects that can include larger and smaller marbling of the fabric. This gives the textiles an exciting, intentionally blotchy, oily-dirty two-tone look. Due to the special dyeing process, garments dyed in the oil-dyed process should only be washed cold in the washing machine.

Fabrics characterised by gradual colour transitions. This effect is created by the choice of fabric weave or by printing the fabric.

Processing variant in which connecting seams become visible. Cut edges are deliberately neither serged nor folded in.

Organic cotton is grown without the use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides and, more recently, can also be processed without the use of environmentally harmful agents.  Organic cotton is currently the best cotton quality from an ecological point of view. Due to its skin-friendly properties, organic cotton is ideal for underwear that is worn directly on the skin. It is particularly suitable for people who are sensitive to the skin.

Jacket-coat fabrics, characterised by wide cross-ribs. Woven in plain weave or rep weave.

Jacket suitable for outdoor use and equipped accordingly.

The overall is a one-piece garment in which the trousers are firmly attached to the top. Overalls were originally developed as workwear and offer increased protection against injuries, fire and dirt thanks to the small number of openings.

The shoulder line crosses the shoulder point, so the sleeve seam is deep in the sleeve area.

Cotton fabric that is over-dyed before being made into a garment.

Used for serging open cut edges. (siehe auch: Overlocknaht)

Very loose, casually cut shirt, suitable to wear over another garment. In warm temperatures, an overshirt replaces the summer jacket.

Garments that are cut oversized are fashionably trendy. For the casual oversize look, T-shirts, jumpers and blouses that are deliberately too big are preferred. They are figure-hugging and hang very loosely.

Designation for a certain check pattern (Oxford check) in the typical English style. Sporty fabric in canvas weave. White warp and coloured weft make the colours appear softer. This fabric was named after the city of Oxford, as this sporty shirting fabric used to be very popular with Oxford students.


Padding means filling material, padding or cushioning. The term can refer to fabrics completely backed with interlining and stitched for better fixation, e.g. striped or diamond shaped.

Padding refers to an insert between the outer fabric and the lining. This serves either as shape-retaining reinforcement or as an additional heat-insulating layer.

Paisley is the name for an abstract, decorative fabric pattern that in its basic form represents a leaf with a pointed, curved end in the manner of a large comma, which is also known in the USA as "Persian pickles". The pattern takes its name from the Scottish town of Paisley, which was an important centre for textile processing in the 19th century. The origin of the paisley pattern goes back to a floral motif that originated in the Persian Sassanid Empire (boteh pattern). It reached India and Britain via the Moguls, where it first became popular.

Elegant single or double breasted short coat with velvet lapel collar. Cut close to the waist and with flap pockets.

Porous fabric with a cube-like weave pattern caused by the Panama weave, a multi-threaded cloth weave (derivative of the plain weave).

Velvet made from filament yarns, characterised by its strong sheen. The pile of the fabric is flattened during the production process by ironing or pressing in any pattern. Unlike classic velvet, panne velvet is knitted, not woven, and is therefore bi-elastic and stretchy.

The word "parka" comes from the Inuit language and stands for heat (of the sun or a stove). Usually a sporty jacket for very low temperatures with warm or fur lining, also on the hood. Shape reaching to mid-thigh with many pockets. Drawstring waist and bottom hem.

A part of the shoulder area that is set off from the front and/or back of the garment, usually emphasised by quilting.

They are "put on" the garments without covering the intervention. A distinction is made here between welt pocket, piped pocket, flap pocket and bellows pocket - (see under the corresponding letters).

Fabric with roughened and sanded surface.

A tippet or pelerine (also pellerine or pelarine, from French pèlerine "pilgrim") is a short shoulder cape similar to a cape, worn over the coat. The original form of the pelerine is made of loden or similar material, which is popular in the Alpine countries.

Offers the hunter protection in adverse weather conditions without restricting freedom of movement. Poncho-like coverlet without sleeves made of coarse woollen cloth or loden. The cut is either rectangular or round and traditionally has only one head hole and one chest slit. More modern styles have a full-length button placket and slit pockets. Die Kotze stammt von der römischen Paenula ab. Vom Kotzenmacher gefertigt, wurde sie in den Alpenländern als Arbeitskleidung und Wetterschutz getragen und seit der 2. In the second half of the 19th century, it was also used as hunting and hiking clothing. It is ideal for hunters as it can be worn over a backpack and hunting rifle. Der Begriff ging von dem groben Stoff auf die daraus gefertigten Kleidungsstücke über.

Pepita (named after the Spanish dancer Pepita de Oliva, 1830-1871) is the general name for dress fabrics made of wool, cotton, viscose in twill weave with black and white, somewhat frayed block check.

Perlon has been the trademark for a synthetic fibre developed in Germany as a nylon alternative since 1938. During the Second World War, perlon was used to make bristles for cleaning weapons, parachutes and parts for the manufacture of aircraft tyres. in 1939, the synthetic fibre was advertised as Perlon L. It was not until 1943 that it was also used for the civilian production of women's stockings. Today, Perlon is used for the production of men's socks, among other things.

Pigment dyeing can be used to achieve a vintage look. Here, dye bodies are applied to the fabric with the help of binders. Washing the finished garments creates fashionable wash-out effects and a sporty look. In contrast to reactive dyeing, the colours can be washed out more quickly with pigment dyeing, so that a washed-out impression is created. The colours may vary from lot to lot. Pigment-dyed fabrics may only be washed with mild detergent, as at temperatures above 60 °C with heavy-duty detergents, oxygen is released which attacks the pigment colours.

Protruding fibre ends in pile fabrics such as velvet or corduroy. The direction of the pile may change by running a hand on it. This must be taken into account during cutting and further processing.

Pilling are up to 2 mm large, nodule-like fibre agglomerations on textiles. Pilling is caused by the abrasive stress of wearing or by damaging the individual capillaries in filaments. The pills on synthetic materials are difficult to remove because of the high strength of the fibres. The undesirable formation of knots, which can occur in knitwear of all kinds, is prevented by suitable processing already during production.

Blouson, made of leather. Characteristic are the two-way pockets in the front area of the jacket and the typical small pocket on the left sleeve. Often pilot jackets are designed so that the decorative fur collar can be removed.

A particularly fine, long staple (= long fibres) cotton from Peru. This cotton is particularly soft, robust and shape-retaining with a silky sheen. To protect the fibres, Pima Cotton is picked by hand, which makes it particularly clean and untreated, yet pest-free. Its fibres are extremely long and fine, which gives this quality a slight sheen and it does not tend to form pilling knots.

Appearance of a pleat created by laying one pleat to the right and the other pleat to the left and then ironing or pleating it.

Needle-fine stripes in worsted fabrics by separating one or two contrasting warp threads.

Most common pocket shape for trousers. Parallel to the pocket seam, another seam is stitched in. This results in a narrow strip. For a piped pocket, two pipings are inserted so that the pocket opening is hemmed by these pipings.

A piping is a narrow stitched fold with a fold break ironed over. The width of a piping varies between one millimetre and one centimetre.

Piping is a banding of edges and seams. It originally served as a kind of reinforcement strip on soldiers' clothing. Edge piping has been used primarily as an embellishment since the 19th century. It emphasises the contours as well as the cut of the clothes. A piping consists of a strip of fabric folded lengthwise. A string can be inserted between the layers. When closing the seam, the piping is carried along. This makes the broken edge of the fabric strip visible in the form of a small bead that emphasises the seam line. There are both edge pipings and pocket pipings. Necklines on T-shirts and pockets are often piped.

Piqué (French for "quilted") is a double weave of cotton or viscose. Its special weave makes the fabric look quilted. Piqué is a lightweight fabric with a waffle-like or granular surface and can be either woven or knitted. It feels particularly light and pleasant on the skin. Due to its structure, piqué is also particularly absorbent. Knitted piqué is the typical material of classic polo shirts.

Also called cloth weave. It is the oldest and also the simplest type of thread crossing and is characterised by the fact that the binding points touch on all sides. Each warp thread comes to lie alternately above and below a weft thread. Therefore, canvas fabrics usually have a high abrasion and sliding resistance.

A chest insert on blouses and shirts. In men's fashion, it also refers to a wide, often white tie that is worn with a cutaway or frock coat on festive occasions - for example, at weddings by the groom. In women's fashion, the plastron refers to a bib on blouses. The plastron owes its nickname "Ascot tie" to its association with equestrian sport; it is still worn today as part of tournament attire.

Special technique in which one thread is covered by the other when knitting. There are two types: a) quality plated, where different properties of the material are exploited (wool outside and cotton inside); b) colour plated, where a pattern effect is created by covering different colours (= vanissé).

Patch pocket, provided with pinch or box pleats. The pockets can often be closed with a flap.

Trouser shape with pleats inserted below the waistband. Characteristic are one or two pleats in the front of the trousers, these provide comfortable width in the hip area and on the thighs. Both ladies and gentlemen wear pleated trousers.

The word "plissé" comes from the French and means "folded". Accordingly, the fabric is cloth in which firm folds have been formed using various methods. In woven pleated fabric, the base warp is stretched strongly and the pleated warp is stretched slightly during weaving. If crepe yarns or yarns of different elasticity are woven in, the pleated effect is enhanced. Knitted pleated fabric is produced on a special warp knitting machine in which the three guide bars work differently. Knitted pleated fabric is made using a special knitting pattern. Chemical-technical pleating is applied to normal fabric by a sequence of treatments with synthetic resin, laying the pleats and pressing under moist heat.

Supposedly inspired by the cross-striped, round-cut, hip-length shirt worn by the Maharaja of Jodhpur (Indian city in Rajasthan) to play polo in 1901. Today's common term for a shirt with a flat-fitting collar in a piqué structure with button placket or zipper.

Polyacrylic is a fully synthetic fibre with partly wool-like properties (high bulk, good heat retention), which is why it is also very often found in wool blends. Polyacrylic is very durable, has a high heat retention and is light and weather resistant. In addition, the high elasticity of the material gives a dimensionally stable fit that remains intact even after many washes.

In the production of synthetic man-made fibres, basic materials such as petroleum and nitrogen are used, which are chemically converted. Polyamide is a man-made fibre made of synthetic polymers that is mostly blended with natural fibres (wool, linen, cotton) for textile products. The most outstanding properties of polyamide are strength and dimensional stability. The desired properties of the fibre are achieved by adding special additives. The fibre is characterised by dimensional stability and resistance to wear. Of all man-made fibres, polyamide has the highest tear and abrasion resistance. The best-known manufacturer brands are Perlon and Nylon.

Manufacture cf. polyamide. Polyester is a fully synthetic fibre that is mostly blended with natural fibres (wool, linen, cotton) for textile products. The most outstanding properties of polyester are strength and dimensional stability. Polyester hardly creases, dries very quickly and is shrinkage and shape resistant. As a jacket filling, polyester keeps the warmth well on the body. The best-known manufacturer brands are Trevira and Diolen.

"Polymers non-synthetic" are modified viscose special fibres whose properties are similar to those of cotton and are cellulosic man-made fibres. They are a subgroup of modal fibres. Compared to Modal, Polynosic offers a: Higher strength and reduced elongation, as well as the possibility of mercerisation. Fabrics resemble the look, feel and drape of heavy, washed silk, but cost less.

Polyurethane is a synthetic fibre based on petroleum. Because it is highly elastic, its use increases fit and comfort. The fibre absorbs little moisture, is easy to care for and hard-wearing. In foamed form, polyurethane is used as a coating for garments because it is light and insulates against the cold. Therefore, it is often used for coating mackintoshes and rubber boots. Imitation leather also usually consists of foamed polyurethane applied to a textile substrate.

The poncho is a sleeveless garment similar to a cape that originated in South America, where it is worn by both women and men. It is quickly put on by the wearer putting their head through a hole at the top of the poncho. The basic shape of the warming garment, which can be worn as a fashionable alternative to a cardigan, for example, is square. A poncho is usually made of woven or knitted material. In its special form as a rain poncho, it is made of water-repellent material.

Plain weave fabric made from pure natural silk. Characteristic is the light, smooth texture of the fabric, this is completely de-bashed, but not weighted.

The term poplin stands for a dense fabric made of different yarns (cotton, linen, wool or synthetic fibre yarns) in plain weave. Poplin is often used to describe particularly light, smooth, summery fabrics.

PrimaLoft® is a synthetic insulation material that is characterised by its light weight, soft touch and high breathability. It has excellent water-repellent properties to stay dry, warm and comfortable even in extreme situations. The PrimaLoft® insulation material is particularly suitable for low temperatures, as it keeps you warm all around.

Protectors are pads sewn into or onto a garment, attached to the elbow or knee area, to protect it from wear and tear. High-quality protectors are mainly used in garments that are exposed to high stresses. In shooting sportswear, where the main focus is on mitigating recoil, the protectors are located in the shoulder area.

Generic term for all fibres of animal origin, e.g. wool, silk.

In this type of knitting, a stockinette and a purl row of stitches always alternate. Both sides of the fabric look the same and show only purl stitches.


Pictograms, stand for precisely defined quality regulations. The goods must fulfil these requirements in order to be awarded the seal. Examples of quality labels are the cotton and linen label, the wool mark, the silk label and the man-made fibre label.


Special cut of sleeves. The cut encloses the shoulder area and the seams run diagonally into the collar seam. The sleeve seams of the full raglan run in an arc from the neck hole to the armhole. In the half-raglan, the seam runs from a point on the shoulder line diagonally into the sleeve hole. This sleeve shape plays a big role in sports and leisure fashion. Garments with this sleeve shape are particularly comfortable. The raglan style is also popular for knitted jumpers. The name goes back to Lord Raglan. The latter lost an arm at the Battle of Waterloo. That is why he wore a coat in this cut during the Crimean War. It made it easier for him to dress and was later named after him.

Stem fibre of the ramie plant (Chinese grass). High quality, linen-like, very strong and silky shiny fibre. Growing areas: Florida, Indonesia, Philippines.

General term for the smallest, recurring pattern unit.

Rayon is also known as viscose. The material used to be called artificial silk and is very similar in structure to silk or cotton. A near-natural synthetic fibre is industrially produced on the basis of purified cellulose or wood pulp in a wet-spinning process. Unlike cotton fibres, not only staple fibres but also continuous fibres (filaments) with variable application possibilities can be produced. Viscose yarns are processed into textile and clothing fabrics, among other things. Due to its increased water absorption capacity, rayon is skin-friendly and particularly comfortable to wear.

 This refers to garments that can be worn on both sides, e.g. reversible jackets or skirts. Such pieces are usually a little thicker because two fabrics are sewn on top of each other. Buttons, zips and pockets are on both sides. The first reversible jackets already existed in antiquity, with a warm side and a cooler one.

Only selected needles knit ribbed fabric. The needles, which do not knit, create a vertical rib effect. This fabric is very cross-stretchy. Combining this technique with colour plating, you get a vertical two-colour knit.

Ankle-length trousers, usually reinforced on the inside with an abrasion-resistant material (e.g. leather) and cut tightly from the knee upwards, are worn in the boot.

The most common spinning process for cotton is the three-cylinder spinning process. The cotton yarn is spun on the ring spinning machine. The principle of ring spinning produces particularly smooth, even and fine yarns. A distinction is made between two types: carded cotton and the higher quality combed cotton.

Ring yarn has intentional thickenings in the thread.

Rinse washed is one of the various washing methods used to treat jeans before they are sold. Unlike "stonewash", rinsed wash does not change the colour of jeans. The fabric is washed only with clean water. Neither stones nor special bleaching agents are used. The rinsed-washed method ensures that jeans do not shrink after the first wash. In addition, this wash produces a particularly clear colour image.

All fabrics with a ribbed look (longitudinal and transverse ribs) woven from fine-thread worsted yarns.

Variable sleeves that can be worn long or short are called rolled sleeves. To allow for rolling up for short wear, the roll-up sleeves are usually cut slightly wider. Most garments with carded sleeves have an inside bar and an outside button that can be used to fix the sleeve. Carded sleeves were originally part of classic uniforms and functional clothing for safaris.

Popular design for blouse and shirt fabrics. Stripes of equal width in basic colour and additional colour alternate, whereby vertical or horizontal arrangements are possible. Also often called candy stripes.

Process in which a fluffy surface is created with the help of raising cards.


Inspired by earlier colonial uniforms, characteristic of this rather loosely held style are the design elements such as epaulettes, belts as well as patch pockets. The typical colours used are khaki and sand.

Englisch für "Sicherheitstasche". Inside pocket on coats, jackets and trousers with Velcro, button or zip fastening.

Machine finishing process for artificially anticipating the shrinkage of textiles (shrink fencing).

Unlike plain weave, the weave points in satin weave do not touch and are evenly distributed. It is one of the three basic weaves. In satin weave, a weft thread is passed alternately under one and over at least two warp threads. The next weft thread is guided in the same way, only on the reverse side and with at least two warp threads offset. The satin weave creates a fabric that is dense, shiny and characterised by a very good drape. Depending on how the warp and weft threads are tied in, different fabric sides are created. Warp satin: here the warp thread system prevails on the right side of the fabric. Weft satin: here the weft threads determine the right side of the fabric. Fabrics made in this way include satin, duchesse.

Satin (French satiné = silky sheen) is often used as an additional designation for smooth, shiny fabrics that fall smoothly. The special weave (atlas weave) gives the fabric two different sides. While one side is smooth and shiny and forms the outside of clothing, the other side is matt and more irregular in texture.

Finishing process to achieve a water and dirt repellent fabric.

The term seersucker is derived from the Persian term "shir o shekar" (meaning "milk and sugar"). This is a very light cotton fabric with an uneven surface look and a striped pattern. The gathered stripes are created by varying the tension of the warp threads during the weaving process or subsequently by applying fibre-swelling substances. The fabric is practically non-iron and therefore very easy to care for. Seersucker qualities are often used for summer clothing, as the structure of the fabric allows good air circulation.

Serge is the general French term for twill weave fabric. In this country, however, it usually means a fine, high-quality woollen fabric.

A new generation of easy-care polyester fibres with "shape memory". The fibres have a silky surface appearance and possess a special property: They return to the (smooth) shape specified by production technology through the action of heat (simply smoothing by hand is sufficient).

A shawl collar wraps around the neck like a scarf. It merges seamlessly into the lapel so that no heel is visible. The seam is at the centre back of the collar. How deep the shawl collar goes is very individual depending on the garment.

Shetland wool is the name for little crimped, somewhat coarser sheep's wool used for sporty textiles.

Dress whose upper part consists of a shirt blouse, the skirt part is straight cut or flared. The button placket is only on the top or is continuous. The dress is belted.

The blouse, which is based on the men's shirt, is characterised by a straight cut, cuffs, shirt collar and a button placket.

Jacket designed in a loose cut, provided with shirt collar, partly also patch breast pockets, shoulder saddle and side slits.

Also called trouser protector tape. Is usually 1.5 cm wide, is sewn on the left side of the lower trouser edge. Prevents the trousers from chafing.

Shorts end a hand's breadth above the knee or even in the middle of the thigh. They are part of the sporty casual wear.

Distance between the bottom of the waistband and the bottom of the leg, measured at the outer side seam.

A finishing process in textile finishing. Silicones are added during the washing process to achieve a very soft feel. This effect fades after a few washes.

Precious atlas fabric with a smooth surface and brilliant sheen.

The fine natural fibre is obtained from the cocoons of silkworms, the larvae of silk-spinning butterflies. It consists mainly of protein and is the only textile continuous fibre that occurs in nature. It was transported to Europe via the Silk Road. India and Japan are other important countries where silk is produced, along with China. The pre-washing (mill washed) of natural silk gives the fabric a particularly cool and soft feel and a matt surface. In addition to its noble sheen, fineness and suppleness, pure silk is characterised by good insulating properties for heat and cold and a high moisture absorption.

Finishing measure for cotton. In this process, the fibre hairs protruding freely from the yarn are burnt off by passing them quickly over gas flames. This makes the treated fabric smoother, less fluffy and prevents pilling.

Fine single knit fabric with two different looking fabric sides. One shows only stockinette stitches, the other shows only purl stitches. The material is breathable, has a high wearing comfort and is particularly soft on the skin due to its fine mesh.

The fabric is made on one needle bed and has two different looking fabric sides; one side shows only right-hand stitches, the other only purl stitches.

Jacket with only one row of fasteners, closing with one, two or three buttons. Depending on the style to be realised, flap pockets or patch pockets are used. The lapels are found in sloping or ascending form.

Sisal is a natural fibre obtained from the leaves of the sisal plant. Sisal is grown in Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico and East Africa, among other places.

A sitting bag is comparable to a sleeping bag. It is used for hunting, especially night hunting. You slip into the sitting bag, similar to a sleeping bag, if you want to spend a longer time on a raised hide in cool temperatures. The body is thus well insulated against the nightly cold and does not cool down. Some have sleeves so that the arms don't freeze either.

The combination of jeans and casual wear. Slacks are modern cotton trousers with a typical casual look.

With the slip pocket, the pocket is accessed from the top, while the sides of the pocket are sewn shut. Most often, the slip pocket is found on men's coats and trousers. Functionally, they mostly serve as watch or change pockets.

A slip-on blouse is a casual blouse that is usually designed without a button placket. It is simply pulled over the head. Some models have a small button placket that makes it easier to put on and take off.

Straight cut coat, provided with raglan or low set sleeves. Characteristic are the concealed button placket and the very small lapel. The plate-shaped collar with a wide collar band is much larger than the lapel. Also called box coat or top coat.

Sleeveless jumper, with V or round neck, worn over top shirts and blouses.

Vertical welt or piped pockets.

A slub is a thickening in the thread. So-called flame yarns give the slub material its character. Flame yarns have elongated thickenings in a regular or irregular arrangement.

Smooth leather is the name given to all types of leather in which the fur side of the hides has been used. It can be smooth, grained, textured, glossy or matt. Surfaces achieved by a special brushing process are called "brush leather".

Softshell jackets are usually lightweight and comfortable, but offer the benefits of two layers in one product: usually windproof functional fabric on the outside and moisture-wicking fleece or thin velour fabric on the inside.

Softly falling fold-out collar in the shape of a trapezoid.

The term »carré« derives from the French and means »square«. A carré neckline is also designed accordingly. The neck is cut straight, the straps of the top or dress can be strictly straight or diverge in a fan. Carré necklines look formal and are often used in business fashion. But even festive dresses in a decidedly restrained design are often adorned with a neckline of this kind.

Stag horn buttons belong to every traditional costume. Contemporary models are given a typically rustic and noble touch by the closures made of natural material. Due to the special properties of the natural raw material, these buttons are not only particularly robust and durable, but also very individual. Pattern and colour vary depending on the origin of the base material. This means that the variety of versions is endless, so that something suitable can be found for every wish, no matter how unusual.

Treatment of a fabric with steam without applying pressure. The consequence: Calming of the fabric appearance and reduction of shrinkage values. In general, all knitwear is steamed.

The stitch is a loop of yarn that is hooked into other stitches and thus gets its stability.

The fabric is made on one needle bed and has two different looking fabric sides; one side shows only right-hand stitches, the other only purl stitches. For shirt and sweat articles, this is also referred to as single jersey.

Stockinette/stockinette is made on two needle beds where the needles face each other in an offset manner. Both sides of the fabric show stockinette stitches.

When washing the finished garments, pumice stones are placed in the drum. The textiles look used due to this finishing process.

Dyeing of yarns in skein form. The uncoiled and not yet processed material can absorb the ink particularly well and evenly.

Number of rows of stitches to 10 cm. Important characteristic for maintaining a constant quality in flat knits.

Trousers with comfortable waistband. The comfort waistband is created by the use of elastic materials and the processing of the waistband.

The term stretch refers to a fabric that is stretchable due to the addition of elastic fibres. Stretch can be transversely elastic, bi-elastic or longitudinally elastic. Due to its properties, stretch is very adaptable.

Suede can come from all animals. The velvety to rough and even fluffy surface appearance is achieved by sanding and grinding scarred skins and hides on the flesh side, or even straight from split leather. Suede leathers are more coarse-grained than nubuck leathers and less shape-retaining. A short cut is called velvet suede, a longer cut is called writing suede.

Suede is a material used in the manufacture of clothing, shoes and bags. The term is used as a collective term for types of leather with a rough or roughened surface. Suede is characterised by its soft, warm feel. The name comes from the French: "Gants de Suède", meaning Swedish gloves, are gloves made of suede. In the course of time, the term "suede" derived from it became common for suede in the textile industry.

Suede is leather obtained from deer, elk, roe deer, antelope or chamois hides. The dull, velvety leather is water-permeable and not very strong. Used as shoe upper leather and as garment leather for high-quality leather jackets and trousers.

The term suedine comes from the French and refers to an imitation suede that closely resembles suede. Suedine is a synthetic fibre made of 100% polyester. The easy-care fabric with a soft feel can be produced in practically any colour and in different densities. Suedine is not only used for outerwear, but also for shoes, accessories and upholstery. It is also a popular fabric for making teddy bears, especially the paws.

A finishing process used on pure new wool products. The virgin wool is made felt-free and easy-care, so it can be washed at 30 °C on the gentle cycle. The Super Wash finish is durable and does not alter the properties of the pure new wool.

Supima is the abbreviation for "Superior Pima", an extra long staple cotton. It is used for textiles and clothing made from 100% American Pima cotton and is continuously controlled by the growers' organisation. The fineness and longer staple length makes Pima a premium cotton fibre. It is used to spin finer yarns from which fine and luxurious fabrics can be woven or knitted. With its extra-fine and extra-long fibres, it ensures that the special cotton properties such as skin-friendliness, pleasant softness, cooling effect, high moisture absorption or breathability are literally first-class in all end products. Supima is a licensed trademark.

The term sweatshirt refers to a garment made of thicker jersey. Originally, the sweatshirt was invented for athletes. The light jersey material is woven from a base thread and a special lining thread. The lining thread is roughened during production so that sweatshirts feel cosy from the inside. Besides the special fabric, the cut of the sweatshirt also stands out from other long-sleeved tops. The sleeves and hem as well as the neckline are hemmed by a wide cuff that ensures the perfect fit of the shirt.

Front pockets with a curved opening (swing pocket) have become established in jeans and sporty casual trousers. The rounded seam runs from the waistband (belt loop) to the side seam of the trousers. With jeans, the ends of the seam are usually reinforced with additional rivets. This serves to prevent the fabric from tearing at these points and goes back to a patent by Davis and Levis from 1873.

A-shaped, very short ladies' coat with a narrow shoulder and a small collar that closes upwards, usually made of light woollen fabric.

A special outfit that is mainly used in the field of leisure wear. Sympatex® is processed as a liner or used as a laminate. Jackets with Sympatex equipment are water-repellent, windproof and breathable at the same time.

Synthetic fibres are fibres that do not occur naturally in this form. The thread is produced with the help of a spinning mass that is pressed through spinnerets with even pressure.


Collar shape. Characteristic is the narrow fabric bar that serves to connect the two collar corners of a shirt.

Finest microfibre quality based on polyamide, originally for sportswear but now also used for "normal" fashion.

The stone nut, also called tagua nut, is the seed of the stone nut palm, which is native to South America. This grows in the tropical rainforest, mainly in Ecuador, but also occurs in Brazil, Peru and Panama. Inside the fruit ball, the seeds, the taguas, develop. They can be as big as walnuts, some are even the size of a chicken. The seeds of a fresh stone nut are soft to begin with. After a drying period of several months, they harden so much that they are just as hard as the nutshell. The brown-black skin is removed. Underneath, the light-coloured seeds, which are the colour of ivory, emerge. They can be worked well with a carving knife. The dried kernels were often made into buttons in the past as a substitute for the much more expensive ivory buttons.

Tanning is the treatment of animal skins, which are susceptible to rotting, with tanning agents. This complicated process creates a new fabric that is more elastic, supple, rot-resistant as well as water-resistant. In tanning, a distinction is made between: vegetable, mineral and fat tanning (seed tanning).

Large-checked wool or cotton fabric designed in bold colours.

Tartan patterns whose arrangements and colours are associated with Scottish families (clans), e.g. Black Watch, Cameron, Mackenzie, Steward, Sutherland.

Fine merino wool from Tasmania. The Tasmanian Merino sheep lives in a country with optimal environmental conditions and a balanced climate. Pure air, clean waters, endless green pastures, favourable weather conditions. Under these conditions, the wool fibre can grow more long-stapled and more evenly and - since there is practically no pollution in Tasmania - is particularly pure.

The term Teflon refers to the chemical substance polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). This is a polymer which belongs to the thermoplastics and is used in many areas of application.

The textiles finished with Teflon® have a fabric protection that makes the fibre water and dirt repellent, while the textile remains breathable.

Tencel® from the company Lenzing is a lyocell fibre of botanical origin. It is obtained from the raw material wood. Due to the closed cycle, the production of this fibre is particularly environmentally friendly. Tencel® has greater absorbency than cotton, is cooler than linen, feels softer than silk and hardly creases. The fibres are often mixed with cotton, viscose or polyester and polyamide. They improve their properties and give them the sheen and soft drape of pure silk. At the same time, Tencel® is more durable than other cellulose fibres and completely biodegradable.

Fabric with uneven surface. The curly appearance, as well as the grainy feel, also distinguish the fabric. The term is often mistakenly used for towelling.

Trousers with fleece lining, roughened inside or inner trousers, making them winter-warm.

The ticket pocket is located on the right side above the normal jacket pocket. Originally, the ticket pocket was used for e.g. for the theatre or for tram tickets.

Relatively long, bell-shaped sleeves.

Textile Labelling Act: Obliges retailers and manufacturers to sell only textiles with accurate raw material information. Products that consist of at least 80% textile raw materials must be labelled.

Hip-length, casually cut jacket. Characteristic features are the boxy cut, the Koller (fashionable form of the saddle) as well as the narrowly cut, set-in sleeves.

This is a patented technology for reducing moisture absorption in cotton. It reduces clothing clinging to the skin and ensures better moisture transfer away from the skin to the surface of the material (TRANS DRY is a trademark of Cotton Inc.).

... is an outer fabric that stretches horizontally through the use of stretch yarns.

A medium-length coat originally designed as a rain/outdoor coat. Typical elements of the trench coat are the belt, shoulder collars, epaulettes, high-closing lapel collar, latch on the sleeve and closable pockets.

This man-made fibre consists of a cellulose compound with acetic acid; is called artificial silk. It is also referred to as an improved acetate fibre, as it is more heat-resistant and can therefore be pleated without any problems.

Tricotine is often made of wool or a washable wool blend. A special weaving technique creates a fabric with a clear diagonal look - mostly fine and at the same time very hard-wearing.

A trim is a decoration or embellishment of the edges of a garment. Particularly commonly used materials for dressing up are fur and plush. The edges of the garment are either completely or only partially edged. In the past, the trim not only served a decorative purpose, but was also intended to conceal the fact that the garment may not have been lined with fur at all. It is mainly found on winter jackets and coats these days.

Light, porous worsted fabric in cloth weave, similar in structure to fresco but lighter and finer. It is mainly used for light summer clothing. A typical Cool Wool fabric.

The turn-down of the trouser leg should be long enough to rest on the shoes at the front, bending in slightly and touching the heel of the shoe at the back.

Sporty knitted jumper, typical feature is the stand-up collar with zip or buttons.

Designed to enclose the upper arm, the sleeve widens to a bell shape from the elbow.

Elongated top for women that is worn over trousers and thus casually hugs the hips. The tunic originated in Roman times and was worn by both men and women from Roman antiquity until the Middle Ages, usually with a belt and free leg.

The cuff is turned outwards and closed with an elegant cufflink.

Characterised by coarse and nubby yarns. The typical English weave originated in the Hebrides and is still considered the epitome of "country style" today. The word is derived from the Scottish word "tweel" (equivalent to English "twill") and refers to a type of weave. Tweed is made from coarse wool yarn and is correspondingly heavy. To make the fabric lighter and cheaper, it is often interspersed with silk, cotton or polyester. Checkered or herringbone patterns are typical. Tweed is primarily made into sports jackets, sports costumes and coats.

This weave is often used for trouser fabrics. You can recognise them by the so-called twill grade: The warp thread always lies over at least two weft threads, which offsets the fabric row. The warp threads on top create a kind of diagonal stripe. This is a slanted ridge on woven fabrics. Twill refers to a basic weave type for fabric. Twill fabrics are hard-wearing cotton, satin or linen fabrics. The thread density defines the thickness of the fabrics, the surface and the strength. A more familiar term for twill is twill, which is used for trousers, solid blouses and workwear. Linen twill is used to create feminine, cooling summer dresses, skirts and blazers. Twill fabrics are available in many weaving and printing techniques. They can be firm and rough, but also very soft and loose. A unique feature is the sloping ridge. The best known representative for twill is the blue and white denim. If the ridge runs from the bottom left to the top right, experts speak of a Z-ridged twill. If the course is opposite, then the fabric has an S-grid twill.

This weave is often used for trouser fabrics. You can recognise them by the so-called twill grade: The warp thread always lies over at least two weft threads, which offsets the fabric row. The warp threads on top create a kind of diagonal stripe. This is a slanted ridge on woven fabrics. Twill refers to a basic weave type for fabric. Twill fabrics are hard-wearing cotton, satin or linen fabrics. The thread density defines the thickness of the fabrics, the surface and the strength.  Linen twill is used to create feminine, cooling summer dresses, skirts and blazers. Twill fabrics are available in many weaving and printing techniques. They can be firm and rough, but also very soft and loose. A unique feature is the sloping ridge. The best known representative for twill is the blue and white denim. If the ridge runs from the bottom left to the top right, experts speak of a Z-ridged twill. If the course is opposite, then the fabric has an S-grid twill.

Twisted yarn is created by twisting at least two yarns together to form a common thread. Smooth twisting increases the strength and volume of the yarn and optimises uniformity. A good uniformity of the threads improves the appearance of the fabric. In the case of fancy yarns, these are given their typical character by twisting together mostly dissimilar material. Depending on the number of individual yarns, a distinction is made between 2-, 3-, 4- and 24-ply twisted yarns.

Twill or plain weave worsted fabric. The use of multicoloured yarns gives the impression of a stippled surface.

A total thread made up of several parallel single threads with a certain elongation.

Zweiwege-Reißverschluss. Can be operated from above or below.

Der Begriff "two-in-one" stammt aus dem Englischen und bedeutet "zwei in einem". These are garments that can be worn in two or more ways. With jackets, for example, there are often models that consist of a thinner outer jacket and a warming inner lining that can be removed with a zip or buttons. Furthermore, there are tops that are, for example, blouse and shirt in one or dresses that can be worn as skirts at the same time. Garments that have different patterns or colours on the inside and outside and can be worn from both sides also fall into this category.

Bag that has pockets in two places, each pocket has a separate bag. Use: sporty outdoor clothing and waistcoats.

A two-way zip is a zip that has two sliders. It is used wherever it is useful to be able to open or close a zip in both directions.


Classic winter coat for men and women, featuring the characteristic Ulster style, back strap, welt pockets and wide stitched edges. Made from voluminous wool fabrics and designed in a straight line. The name finds its origin in the Irish county of Ulster, which was famous for thick woollen fabrics.

Special garments of menswear that are made without interior design, in this respect they appear "unfinished" in a certain way. For example, a jacket without lining and shoulder pads.

Inspired by uniforms of all kinds. The style is characterised by its taut lines, as well as the covers in contrasting colours.

The finished garments, especially denim wear, are treated in an extra wash cycle to create a "registered" look.


This refers to leather that has been made durable with tanning agents of a vegetable nature. Vegetable tanning agents are obtained from barks, tannins, tannin-containing fruits, tanning leaves and tanning roots.

Loden with a napped look, where the fibres are not laid in one direction. This type of loden has a soft and voluminous surface.

Woolen fabric of soft, napped character. A distinction is made between short, dense pile (standing velour) and flat lying pile (line velour).

Smooth weft velvet fabric, characterised by a short pile. Mostly made of cotton. Also called sports velvet.

Soft fabric with plush-like surface. Either an elegant or a sporty look is achieved through different finishing processes. Velvet differs from plush in the length of the pile. With velvet, it is the shortest (a maximum of two to three millimetres long), so velvet feels soft, yet the hardest of the three in comparison. Due to the pile, velvet has a grain direction that causes the fabric to look and feel different with the grain or against the grain. The stroke direction must therefore be observed during processing.

Cotton fabric whose surface texture is reminiscent of velour. The short pile is created by roughening and sanding the right side of the fabric. Properties include high strength and durability as well as good washing properties. Cotton yarns in the weft or cotton twisted yarns in the warp are used to make the fabric. The extremely good mechanical strength of Velveton is achieved by the high weft thread count of up to 60 threads per centimetre. The imitation velvet with the sanded, roughened surface in the look of suede is also known as duvetine, peau de peche or peach skin.

Uniform, high-contrast, checked cotton fabric, usually two-coloured, with one colour being mostly white. The fabric is created on the loom by alternating stripes of equal width in warp and weft. Popular pattern for blouse and shirt fabrics.

Seam originating from the armhole on both fronts of costume jackets, dresses and jackets. The round designed line runs to the waist or hem. Saves bust darts and achieves a figure-hugging silhouette.

Original models from the 50s to the 70s are particularly beautiful for creating the look. But garments that are merely made or treated as if they come from this period can also be assigned to this look. To be noted: Vintage outfits may look worn, but they should never give a worn impression.

New wool is the name given to textile fibres that come from the fur of living sheep. People have kept sheep as versatile livestock for thousands of years. Wool is thus one of the oldest materials used for the production of textiles. New wool is the term used to describe all types of wool acquired by shearing sheep.

Viscose is the best-known man-made fibre based on cellulose, which is obtained from natural raw materials. The raw material for viscose is pine and beech wood as well as bamboo, which is debarked and chopped into small pieces. In a complex process, resins and foreign substances are boiled out so that the resulting cellulose can be pressed into pulp sheets. These pulp sheets are again liquefied to a honey-like solution and pressed through fine spinnerets into the spinning bath. The cellulose solidifies in the spinning bath to form filaments, which can be combined and spun into filament yarn. Unlike natural fibres, viscose cannot be spun without complex chemical conversion processes. Viscose gives fabrics a soft handle and supple drape. The fibre is chemically produced and is also known as artificial silk or rayon. Viscose can be dyed excellently and scores with brilliant colours. It can take on either a matte finish or a silky sheen. Viscose is also ideally suited as a lining fabric.

V-Ausschnitt. As the name suggests, the neckline shape runs in a V-shape towards the chest.

The term comes from the French and means "veil". Canvas-bound fabric, mostly made of cotton, but also of woollen worsted yarn (woollen voile). The fabric is translucent and has a grainy feel. This is created by the use of hard twisted yarns/twists.


Cotton fabric with a waffle-like appearance, created by the square arrangement of thread floats.

Trouser measurement that measures the circumference of the waistband at waist level.

Extension of the waistband with outer fabric, refers to the waistband overhang of a pair of trousers with a hook and eye to close the waistband to give a neat waistband finish.

Garment without sleeves. The classically designed waistcoat has single or double-breasted buttons and is cut to end just below the waist. The hem and neckline are constructed in a pointed shape, the armholes in a deep shape.

Mechanical, thermal or chemical treatment of a woollen fabric causes its fibres to push close together, making it felt. Rolled fabric is denser, warmer and more durable by increasing tensile and abrasion resistance. The degree of matting causes a shortening in length and width of up to 40 %.

A knitted whalecloth that is not woven. Knitted loden is cheaper than woven loden and adapts better to the curves of the body due to its flexible mesh structure. It has a more uneven surface appearance and a lower strength compared to rolled loden.

The longitudinal threads in the fabric are called warp, the transverse threads are called weft.

Common generic term for all shirt and sweat items. Knitted fabrics which are not made by knitting one stitch after the other, but in which all the stitches in a row are knitted off simultaneously with the thread running horizontally.

Modern loden variant with a rolled surface that is not napped and pressed. It has a stable, soft surface.

Many wool and cotton yarns are washed after knitting to achieve a softer feel and a more voluminous knit.

Front trouser pocket in different variations, whose pocket opening is very small and can only be operated with two fingers.

The waterproofness of membranes or fabrics is indicated with the so-called water column (in mm) and determined by placing a column filled with water on the material. Fabrics are considered waterproof if their water column exceeds 1300 mm (i.e. the fabric can withstand the water pressure of a 1.3 metre high column). Generally, a water column of 1500 mm is considered sufficient; for heavily used areas, e.g. in the shoulder area, the values should be 2000 mm. The water column decreases with the number of washes or cleaning processes.

Characteristic of a waterfall collar is loosely gathered fabric that falls down in soft waves like cascades, the steps of a waterfall, hence the name. It is visually very striking and an interesting alternative to other collar styles. It goes well with classic blouses and jumpers as well as casual casual shirts and sexy evening dresses.

Wax impregnation is the coating of textile surfaces with paraffin waxes. The smooth surface makes the coated textiles dirt and water repellent.

The loss of weight caused by degumming can be compensated for by adding metal salts or other chemicals.

"Welding" means the joining of thermoplastic materials by heat. This prevents the penetration of moisture through the seams.

This type of loden is also called diagonal loden, as the warp is a different colour to the weft, making the twill weave very visible.

The welt pocket is a pocket whose upper edge is reinforced with an additional strip of fabric (welt). The strip of fabric, the width of which can vary, is placed around the top edge and sewn on both sides. This elegantly conceals the pocket's opening. Waist pockets are found especially on jackets, waistcoats, coats or even on the back of trousers. There are different types of welt pockets: With jackets they tend to be straight, with sweatshirts or blazers they are often set at an angle. The closure can be a button with a loop, but also a so-called flap, a fabric flap sewn on over the opening, which rests on the pocket opening without any further closure.

The wild silk (tussah silk) comes from wild silkworms of Indian or Chinese origin. In the wild, the caterpillar produces only one cocoon crop; meanwhile, up to six generation successions can be obtained per year. As the cocoons are bitten through when the butterflies hatch, this silk is not endless. It is therefore spun according to two techniques and has thickenings. The colour of the silk is very different and depends on the food of the caterpillar. There are light green, light grey, dark grey, yellow-brown, dark brown and almost black tussah. The more tannin-containing food the caterpillar ingests, the darker the silk becomes.

Windbreakers are jackets that combine absolute, durable windproofness with excellent breathability. They protect from cooling down due to wind and at the same time allow the body to breathe unhindered.

Windproof clothing prevents the exchange between the warm, insulating layer of air created by movement in the clothing and the cooler ambient air, thus protecting the body from cooling down due to cold wind. It is also important to protect against the so-called wind chill effect: the difference between the measured and the felt air temperature depending on the wind speed, which can sometimes be very large.

Laminates that are windproof but not waterproof and offer good moisture transport to the outside.

Winter cotton fabrics, often with a sanded or napped surface.

Wool is one of the oldest staple fibres in the world. Wool felts already existed at a time when there was no spinning wheel and no loom. Wool is the term used to describe animal hair that is spun into threads to make a fabric. Wool and other fine animal hair consist mainly of protein substances (keratin). In addition to the special fibre structure, these determine the use properties of the wool. Sheep's wool is used in the first place, but also the hair of goats, camels and angora rabbits. In Europe, this type of textile production has been known for over 5000 years. Wool fabric has natural thermoregulation properties as it insulates well due to its high air content and stores the body's own heat. Although the surface of wool fabric is water repellent, it can absorb a lot of moisture without feeling wet and release it back into the environment. Due to its chemical properties, wool neutralises perspiration odours. Wool fabrics cover a wide spectrum, from heavy felt to very fine lightweight fabrics. Due to the scaly structure of the hair surface, wool tends to form fluff (pilling).

Quality mark for blends of wool and other textile fibres, whereby the minimum percentage of new wool must be 60 %. The exact percentage of the main fibre content and all admixtures is required by law.

Particularly smooth, round and even yarn that can also be spun in finer yarn counts. In an upstream operation, the long fibre material is combed, i.e. well oriented lengthwise and cleaned of short fibres.

A wrap blouse (cache-coeur blouse) or wrap shirt is not fastened with buttons, but has two panels of fabric at the front that are wrapped crosswise around the waist and knotted. Due to the wrapping technique, a more or less deep V-neckline is created.


Nm stands for "number metric" and denotes the yarn count. The yarn number indicates how many metres of a yarn weigh 1 g. The higher the number, the finer the yarn. Example: Nm 15 = 15 m weigh 1 g.

In yarn-dyed products, the yarn is dyed even before it is processed, whereas in normal production, the finished product is dyed first. You can recognise yarn-dyed textiles because they look the same from both sides. But there is not only an optical effect: The yarn dyeing makes the garment particularly washfast and of lasting colour intensity.

Substitute for jute fibres. Leaf fibre of the lily plant Yucca filamentosa.


Twill weave, which is characterised by the course of the diagonals from the bottom right to the top left. This arrangement makes an association with the letter Z possible.

Derivation of the twill weave. Characteristic are diagonal or longitudinal zigzag lines. This fabric is used for costumes, skirts and coats. The initial weave is the twill weave, the zigzag lines consist of compound Z and S weaves which converge to a point.

"Zip off" means that the length of a pair of trousers can be changed by detaching leg warmers that are connected to the upper part of the leg dress by zips. Depending on the variant, two lengths can be set - long trousers and shorts - or additionally the third trouser length as three-quarter trousers ending below the knee.

The zip is used as a fastener for various items of clothing, shoes and bags. It has so-called cramps on two sides that hook into each other or release when the slider is moved in either direction. The material used is metal or plastic.